Laboratory of Electronics 1

Course Description

The purpose of this course is to give the students the practical knowledge about analog signal processing procedures in time and frequency domain, the ability to realize practical circuits, the practical knowledge about passive and active microwave circuits, microwave CAD software and test equipment, about audio technology, audio transfer and recording systems, audio signal processing as well as measurements on audio systems. The course offers individual practical experience about the concepts that are taught in Analog and Mixed signal processing, Microwave Engineering and Audiosystems.

General Competencies

Practical knowledge about laboratory instrumentation, and procedures for measurement the parameters and analysis of various analog signal processing circuits, ability to create projects and solutions for different signal processing tasks, and to develop and realize simple SP circuits and to simulate linear and nonlinear analog circuits using CAD programs. Deep understanding of microwave CAD simulation software allowing students to verify results of the design-oriented problems in Microwave Engineering. Practical skills to design basic microwave circuits including a microwave laboratory experience. Practical knowledge about audio signal transfer in audio communications through different audio systems.

Learning Outcomes

  1. explain operating principles of microwave measuremet equipment (power meter, frequency counter, spectrum analyzer, network analyzer)
  2. apply microwave measurement equipment to characterize microwave circuits
  3. show, analyze and interpret measurement results
  4. apply measurement methods for determining electrical parameters of audio equipment
  5. compute basic parameters of loudspeakers based on electrical measurements
  6. introduce to continuous-time, analog electrical filters
  7. introduce to software for synthesis (FILTERCAD), and analysis (PSPICE) of analog electrical filters

Forms of Teaching


Lectures are organized to support laboratory exercises. The goal is to present measurement equipment and measurement procedures.

Laboratory Work

Individual practical experience in laboratory in applying the concepts that are taught in Analog and Mixed signal processing, Microwave Engineering and Audiosystems.


Organized upon request.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 80 % 0 % 0 %
Quizzes 0 % 10 % 0 % 0 %
Class participation 0 % 10 % 0 % 0 %

No mid-term and final exam. Acquired knowledge and skils are tested at the end of each laboratory exercise. Points acquired at the laboratory exercises pertaining to each of the three theoretical courses related with this one contribute 33.3% of the final mark.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. impedance measurement by using waveguide hybrid T-junction
  2. Gunn oscillator
  3. reflection amplifier
  4. injection-locking of a microwave oscillator
  5. measurement of scattering parameters of a microwave transistor
  6. microstrip transmission line
  7. measurement on operational amplifiers
  8. measurement on power amplifiers
  9. measurement of Thiele-Small loudspeaker parameters
  10. perceptually coded audio systems
  11. second-order passive-RLC filter (Biquad)
  12. second-order LP, HP and BR active-RC filter realization (Biquads)
  13. measurements of Bode diagrams of analog filters and spectrum of signals and noise using sophisticated laboratory equipment
  14. active RC analog filter design using synthesis software (FILTERCAD), and analysis of parameters using analysis software (PSPICE)
  15. time slot for supplementary exercises

Study Programmes

University graduate
Electronics (profile)
(1. semester)


Schaumann, R.; Van Valkenburg, M. E. (2001.), Design of Analog Filters, Oxford University Press
Franco, S. (2002.), Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, McGraw Hill
Bartolić, J. (2010.), Mikrovalna elektronika, Graphis
Bonefačić, D., Zentner, R. (2010.), Mjerenja u mikrovalnoj elektronici, FER
D. Davis, C. Davis (1997.), Sound System Engineering, Focal Press

Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 35234
  Winter semester
L0 English Level
L1 e-Learning
30 Lectures
60 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

87 Excellent
75 Very Good
63 Good
51 Acceptable