Electroacoustics 2

Course Description

Course includes advanced methods of designing and construction of electroacoustic transducers. This includes analysis of electroacoustic analogies, design and use of microphones, loudspeakers and loudspeaker cabinets. Course especially includes analysis and construction of piezoelectric transducers and non-linear effects in the transducers. The course also cover the field of noise measurement and designing of system for low noise emission. The course also includes a field of environmental noise reduction.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Define and demonstrate electroacoustic analogies
  2. Classify and analyse types of microphones
  3. Classify and analyse types of loudspeakers
  4. Define and analyse piezoelectric transducers
  5. Demonstrate measurements of environmental and machine noise
  6. Assess how noise influences on humans

Forms of Teaching


The lectures will cover basic theoretical knowledge in the field of electroacoustic transducers.

Seminars and workshops

Students will write a seminar in the field of electroacoustic transducers.


Students will solve mathematical problems in the field of electroacoustic transducers.


Students will analyze parameters in the field of electroacoustic transducers through laboratory exercises in small groups.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 15 % 0 % 15 %
Seminar/Project 0 % 15 % 0 % 15 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 20 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 20 %
Final Exam: Oral 30 %
Exam: Written 0 % 40 %
Exam: Oral 30 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Electromechanical analogies, Sound emission of non-ideal cones, Nonlinear oscilator; Duffing equation, Finite amplitude effects, N-waves, square waves, Shock waves, Acoustic streaming, Acoustic cavitation
  2. Electrical and acoustical types of microphones, Measurement and calibration of microphones, Measurement of microphone parameters
  3. Sound emission of non-ideal cones, Loudspeakers types, Electrostatic, piezoelectric and ion loudspeakers, Measurement of loudspeaker parameters
  4. Hydrophone construction; Hydrophone parameters, Accelerometer construction; Accelerometer parameters, Calibration of piezoelectric transducers, Piezoelectric harvesting devices, Piezoelectric transformers
  5. Instrumentation, Measurement norms in acoustics, Measurement uncertainty
  6. Sound pressure measurement; Sound level meters, Sound intensity measurement, Calibrated measurement signals, Calibrated measurement sources, Measurements of acoustical elements, silencers, barriers
  7. Noise indicators, Measurement microphones, Sound in tubes and ducts, Norms and regulation, Noise maps
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Characteristics and parameters of vibration, Measurement accelerometers, Hand-arm vibration; Whole-body vibration, Norms and regulation
  10. Methods of noise protection, Airborne sound insulation; Impact noise sound insulation, Noise barriers, Personal noise protection
  11. Acoustic characteristics of instruments, Acoustic characteristics of singing voice, Directivity of musical instruments, Influence of rooms on the sound of musical instruments
  12. Speech intelligibility
  13. Acoustical characteristics of voice signal, Voice generation, Anatomy and modelling of the vocal tract
  14. Explicit and implicit numerical methods, Application of BEM, FEM, volume element method and stastical method in acoustics, Hybrid numerical methods, Restrictions and applicability of numerical methods in acoustics
  15. Final exam

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Ivan Jelenčić (1991.), Zvučnici,
Tihomir Jelaković, Miomir Vujnović (1969.), Mikrofoni,
Glen Ballou (2012.), Electroacoustic Devices: Microphones and Loudspeakers, CRC Press

For students


ID 222432
  Summer semester
L2 English Level
L2 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
15 Exercises
10 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

Very Good