Microwave Networks and Circuits

Course Description

Transmission lines: microstrip line, stripline. Coaxial line. One-port and multi-port microwave networks, impedance, admittance, transmission and scattering matrices, signal flow graphs. Two-port networks: attenuator, ferrite isolator, phase shifter. Three-port networks: circulator, power dividers. Four-port networks: directional couplers and hybrids. Microwave resonators and filters. Microwave semiconductor devices: PIN diode, varactor diode, Schottky diode, bipolar transistor, HBT, MOSFET, MESFET, HEMT. Microwave amplifiers: power gain definitions, stability, amplifier design for specified gain and noise figure. Microwave oscillators: Gunn oscillator, transistor oscillator, injection-locking, phase noise. Mixer, mixing.

Learning Outcomes

  1. analyze networks and circuits with distributed parameters
  2. explain the operation and application of multi-port microwave circuits
  3. design microstrip transmission lines and circuits consisting of such lines
  4. explain operation principles and applications of microwave semiconductor devices
  5. design simple active microwave circuits with semiconductor elements
  6. explain the operation of the microwave oscillator
  7. explain the principles of frequency synthesis
  8. explain the principles of mixing and frequency conversion

Forms of Teaching


Lectures present theoretical concepts, existing mathematical models and examples from practice.


Classroom exercises allow the application of concepts from lectures in solving practical examples.

Independent assignments

Independent tasks deepen understanding and develop independence in solving practical problems.


The laboratory complements the development of problem-solving skills through self-contained and team solving of more complex problems.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 50 % 0 % 0 % 0 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 25 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 25 %
Final Exam: Oral 50 %
Exam: Written 50 % 50 %
Exam: Oral 50 %


Week by Week Schedule

  1. Port and reference plane. One-port network. Impedance. Foster's reactance theorem. Two-port and multi-port networks. Impedance and admittance matrices (Z-, Y-parameters). Power waves, scattering parameters. Transmission matrix (ABCD-parameters). Reciprocal network, matched network, lossless network.
  2. Quarter-wave impedance transformer. Coaxial transmission line. Stripline, microstrip line.
  3. Signal flow graphs. Graph decomposition. Mason's rule. Two-port networks (attenuator, ferrite isolator, phase shifter).
  4. Three-port networks (ferrite circulator, T-junction, resistive power divider, Wilkinson power divider).
  5. Directions coupler (symmetrical and asymmetrical). Waveguide and transmission line couplers, hybrids. Quadrature hybrid, 180° hybrid, even and odd mode analysis.
  6. Serial and parallel resonant circuit, quality factor and bandwidth. Transmission line resonators, cavity resonators, dielectric resonators. Excitation of resonators. Coupling with external circuits.
  7. Filter synthesis. Maximally flat response filters. Equal-ripple response filters. Elliptic function filters. Impedance and frequency scaling. Richard's transformation. Kuroda's identities. Microwave filter prototypes.
  8. Midterm exam
  9. PIN diode. Varactor diode. Schottky diode. Gunn element. Microwave avalanche diodes. Microwave bipolar transistors, HBT. Microwave field effect transistors, MOSFET, MESFET, HEMT.
  10. Power gain definitions. Amplifier stability, stability circles. Unilateral amplifier, unilateral figure of merit. Amplifier design for specified gain. Amplifier design for specified noise figure.
  11. Collpits and Hartley oscillator circuits. Voltage controlled oscillator. Crystal oscillators. Oscillators with one-port device (Gunn oscillator). Microwave transistor oscillators.
  12. Injection locking. Oscillator phase noise.
  13. Direct frequency synthesizers. Phase-locked loop frequency synthesizers. Digital look-up frequency synthesizers.
  14. Mixer circuits, analysis and design of mixers.
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

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Juraj Bartolić (2011.), Mikrovalna elektronika, Graphis, Zagreb
D. Bonefačić, R. Zentner (2010.), Mjerenja u mikrovalnoj elektronici, FER
Z. Smrkić (1990.), Mikrovalna elektronika, Školska knjiga
David M. Pozar (2011.), Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons
Collin, R.E. (1992.), Foundations for Microwave Engineering, 2nd Revised edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.

For students


ID 222439
  Winter semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
0 Exercises
12 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

88 Excellent
76 Very Good
66 Good
55 Acceptable

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