Embedded Systems

Course Description

Embedded systems and their applications. Component specification. Standard operating voltages, and compatibility. Families of processors and controllers. Internal busses. Memories. Input-output units. Circuits for initialization and monitoring. Serial synchronous and asynchronous busses. Low power operating modes. Implementation technologies. Tools and environment for development. Logic synthesis. Hardware description languages. Timing specification and simulation. Software for embedded systems. Soft microcontroller cores. Examples of embedded systems.

General Competencies

Knowledge of embedded system design, the corresponding implementation technology, and their application.

Learning Outcomes

  1. define embedded system, its elements and architecture
  2. classify embedded system components based on signal type, integration level, realization and functionality
  3. analyze and build a simple embedded computer system from scratch
  4. develop hardware and software for embedded computer system with 8-bit microcontroller
  5. apply peripherals which are built in 8-bit microcontrollers
  6. design embedded computer system using FPGA
  7. apply programmable logic, programmable array logic (PAL), field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)

Forms of Teaching


3 hours once every week


midterm exam and final exam

Laboratory Work

6 times in semester



Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 50 % 24 % 50 % 24 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 33 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 33 %
Final Exam: Oral 10 %
Exam: Written 50 % 66 %
Exam: Oral 10 %

The student is allowed to approach the oral exam if minimum 50% is gained on the midterm and written part of the final exam. The student is allowed to approach the oral exam if minimum 50% is gained on the written part of the exam. Oral exam is not mandatory.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Embedded computer systems - historical perspective from Apollo guidance computer to IPhone. Elements and architecture of typical embedded computer.
  2. Classification of embedded system components based on signal type, integration level, inner and outer realization and application domain. Packaging of electronic components.
  3. Design of embedded systems: chip level design and board level design. Technical specification and standards. Interconnection standards, logic level standards and power supply standards.
  4. Families of digital components. Unipolar and bipolar signaling standards. Noise sources and immunity; digital signal integrity.
  5. Example of a rudimentary digital system. From specification to implementation and evaluation. Bus-timing analysis.
  6. Microcontrollers in embeded systems. Basic microcontroller architecture. Example of 8-bit microcontroller. Hardware design of microcontroler based embedded systems. Design examples.
  7. Built-in periferial circuitry. Analog to digital convertor, pulse width modulator, capture and compae circuitry, watch dog. Software development in assembler. Examples of assembler programs working with built-in peripherals.
  8. Midterm exam.
  9. Reset circuitry, clock sources, power supplies. Example of embedded system based on 8-bit microcontroller. EPROM emulator. Emulacija ugrađenih komponentara. Microcontroller emulator. Software development in C.
  10. Dedicated user interfaces. Connection od LEDs, 7- segment indicators and liquid crystal displays (LCDs). I2C bus. In-circuit emulation. EPROM emulator. Microcontroller emulator. Protection of hardware and software design.
  11. Programmable logic, programmable array logic (PAL), field programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
  12. Design tools for programmable logic devices.
  13. Soft microcontroller cores, PicoBlaze
  14. Single chip implementation in FPGA technology.
  15. Final exam.

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
[FER2-HR] Computer Engineering - module
(5. semester)
[FER2-HR] Electronic and Computer Engineering - module
(5. semester)


(.), Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computer Systems Design Wayne Wolf Morgan Kaufmann 2000,
Mladen Vučić (2007.), Upotreba mikrokontrolera u ugrađenim računalnim sustavima, FER
Davor Petrinović, Mladen Vučić (2007.), Osnove projektiranja računalnih sustava, FER
Pong P. Chu (2008.), FPGA Prototyping by VHDL Examples: Xilinx Spartan-3 Version, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Surhone, Tennoe, Henssonow (.), MICROBLAZE, Betascript publishing

Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 86535
  Winter semester
L0 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
0 Exercises
18 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

88 Excellent
75 Very Good
62 Good
50 Sufficient