Control System Elements

Course Description

Control systems structure. Static and dynamic characteristics of control system elements. Principles and clasification of detectors, transmitters and transducers. Sensors in robotics. Processing and transmission of measurement signals to control devices, measurement noise reduction. Specific requirements on measurement devices in control systems. Intelligent sensors. Actuators and motors (pneumatic, hydraulic), control valves. Types of control devices. Introduction to programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Elements for protection, supervision and display of states of automated process. Introduction to supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA).

General Competencies

Knowledge about principles and types of control systems elements. Understanding control systems and connections between elements. Ability to determine parameters of static and dynamic characteristics of control systems elements. Work with real elements.

Learning Outcomes

  1. describe functioning of detectors of phisycal quantities
  2. describe functioning of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators
  3. explain the role of of transducers and transmitters
  4. explain role and types of control devices
  5. apply ladder diagram-based PLC programming
  6. list detectors of phisycal quantities
  7. explain role of sensors in robotics
  8. describe functioning of SCADA systems

Forms of Teaching


Lectures are organized in thematic parts according to the basic types of control system elements.

Laboratory Work

Detectors of caloric variables; digital speed measurement; PLC programming


Upon request

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 18 % 0 % 18 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 30 %
Final Exam: Oral 22 %
Exam: Written 0 % 60 %
Exam: Oral 22 %

The oral exam share is ±30%.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Control system structure and principles and classification of detectors, transmitters and transducers; Detectors of mechanic variables
  2. Detectors of mechanic variables; Detectors of caloric variables
  3. Detectors of pressure, level, flow and pH
  4. The role of transducers and transmitters; Requirements on measurement devices
  5. Processing and transmision of measured signals to control center; Noise reduction in measured signal
  6. Intelligent sensors; Sensors in robotics - digital compass, sonar, touch sensor, camera, laser finder
  7. Characteristics of actuators; Pneumatic actuators
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Hydraulic actuators; Control valves
  10. Types of control devices - analog and digital (uP, uC)
  11. Operating principles and components of programmable logic controllers (PLC); Ways of PLC programming
  12. Ladder diagram-based PLC programming
  13. PLC programming tools and examples
  14. Elements for alarms, protection, supervision and display of states in automated processes; Introduction to supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA)
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
Control Engineering and Automation (module)
(5. semester)


Z. Kovačić, S. Bogdan (2014.), Elementi sustava automatizacije - Bilješke za predavanja / Control System Elements – Lecture notes, Zavod za APR, FER Zagreb.
Clarence W. de Silva (2007.), Sensors and Actuators – Control System Instrumentation, CRC Press
Bill Drury (2009.), Control Techniques Drives and Controls Handbook, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, UK
Bela G. Liptak (2003.), Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Fourth Edition, Volume One, CRC Press
John G. Webster, Halit Eren (2014.), Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition, CRC Press

Laboratory exercises

Grading System

ID 34296
  Winter semester
L2 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lecturers
0 Exercises
15 Laboratory exercises


89 Excellent
78 Very Good
60 Good
51 Acceptable