Virtual Environments

Course Description

Virtual Environment: introduction, definitions, virtual scene, components of the virtual scene, modeling the virtual scene. Rendering, generalized graphics rendering pipeline, programmable pipelines, introduction to special effects. Rendering special effects: generalized texture mapping, texture filtering, alpha, light, gloss, reflection and bump mapping, other texture mapping methods. Rendering special effects: fuzzy rendering effects, reflections, shadows, billboard techniques, other effects. Rendering accelleration: polygon reduction, selective culling, level of detail techniques, impostors. Rendering accelleration: optimal polygonal structures, scene organization and state changes, pipeline stages optimization. Networked virtual environments: applications, technical challenges, scalability, network connectivity architectures. Networked virtual environments: virtual space structuring, traffic types and protovols for NVEs, example NVE systems. Virtual environments on mobile platforms: applications, technical constraints, specific methods for mobile devices. Virtual reality: definition, principles, development, VR device types, input devices. Virtual reality: natural 3D vision, simulated 3D vision, visual, audio, haptic and other output devices, design and programming of VR systems. Augmented reality: definition, characteristics, applications, optical and video mixing, projection systems, comparisons of different image mixing techniques. Augmented reality: registration, tracking, registration errors, sensing, mobile augmented reality. Data visualization. Scientific visualization.

Learning Outcomes

  1. define the concept of virtual environment
  2. use the functions of a GPU
  3. develop solutions applying advanced virtual environments
  4. develop 3D graphics applications on various platforms
  5. apply knowledge in complex projects involving virtual environments
  6. plan and lead smaller projects

Forms of Teaching


Two live lectures per week

Independent assignments

Projects: group work, presentation


Assignments can be performed independently

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 20 % 0 % 20 %
Class participation 0 % 6 % 0 % 6 %
Seminar/Project 0 % 20 % 0 % 20 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 32 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 32 %
Exam: Written 0 % 64 %

The possible number of points is 110 due to the optional nature of the project.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Virtual environments introduction and applications.
  2. Real-time rendering pipeline; Rendering pipeline on graphics processing unit (GPU).
  3. Real-time rendering pipeline; Rendering pipeline on graphics processing unit (GPU).
  4. Special effects.
  5. Special effects.
  6. Acceleration.
  7. Acceleration.
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Midterm exam
  10. Networked virtual environments. Virtual worlds. Digital games.
  11. Virtual reality. Augmented reality. Virtual humans.
  12. Visualization of 2D/3D scalar fields (color mapping, isosurfaces). Direct volume data rendering (ray-casting, transfer functions, segmentation). Visualization of vector fields and flow data.
  13. High-dimensional data (dimension reduction, parallel coordinates). Evaluation of visualization methods. Applications of visualization.
  14. Project
  15. Project

Study Programmes

University graduate
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(.), Igor S. Pandžić, Tomislav Pejša, Krešimir Matković, Hrvoje Benko, Aleksandra Čereković, Maja Matijašević (2011.), Virtualna okruženja: Interaktivna 3D grafika i njene primjene, Element Zagreb, Manualia Universitatis Studiorum Zagrabiensis,
(.), Tomas Akenine-Möller, Eric Haines, Naty Hoffman (2008.), Real-Time Rendering, third edition, A.K.Peters Ltd,

Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 223727
  Winter semester
L2 English Level
L1 e-Learning
30 Lectures
2 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

90 Excellent
75 Very Good
65 Good
55 Acceptable