Transmission of Audio

Data is displayed for academic year: 2023./2024.

Course Description

The goal of the subject is to qualify the students for use of modern radio-broadcasting systems and for working in radio stations. The following thematic units are elaborated in detail: Analog radio-diffusion by using amplitude and frequency modulations. Compander systems. Organization of operation for a radio station. Technological spaces for storage, recording, editing and running the program. Digitalization of audio signal. Audio compression and reduction based on psychoacoustic models. Digital radio-diffusion. Transmission of additional information. Audio transmission through public fixed and mobile communication networks. Multichannel audio systems in multimedia transmission. Model of audio transmission system for estimation of quality for the received signal. Measurements and evaluation of the quality of audio transmission. Internet radio.

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
[FER2-HR] Electronics - module
Elective Courses (6. semester)
[FER2-HR] Information Processing - module
Elective Courses (6. semester)

General Competencies

The subject offers a review of basics of audio transmission. The students study classical systems for analog and digital radio-diffusion of audio, as well as modern interactive systems used for radio-diffusion of multichannel audio. The students also gain knowledge on the use of public communications for the purpose of transmitting broadband signals.

Learning Outcomes

  1. define basic parameters of radiobroadcasting systems
  2. distinguish analog radiobroadcasting systems based on amplitude and frequency modulation
  3. analyze digitalization steps of audiosignal depending on chosen sampling frequency and quantization interval
  4. compare basic principles of audiocoding
  5. indicate basic differences between present systems for digital radiobroadcasting
  6. identify problems of transition from analog to digital radiobroadcasting systems
  7. explain organization of radio station
  8. define basics parameters which determine acoustic quality of sutios and management rooms

Forms of Teaching


Two lecturing cycles. duration of 1 st is 7 weeks and the second lasts 6 weeeks.


Midterm exam, Final exam


Auditory excercises

Laboratory Work

Laboratory will be organized through 6 excercises, each of 90 minutes duration.

Experimental Exercises


Internship visits

Visiting professional radio-broadcating station with understanding basics acoustics parameters of control rooms and studio design.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 20 % 0 % 20 %
Attendance 0 % 5 % 0 % 5 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 30 %
Final Exam: Oral 15 %
Exam: Written 0 % 60 %
Exam: Oral 15 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Introduction. Basics of sound and hearing process. Basic elements of radicommunication system. Baseband and passband transmission.
  2. Analog radiobroadcasting systems based on amplitude modulation. Bandwidth of amplitude modulated signal. History of radiobroadcasting.
  3. Analog radiobroadcasting systems based on frequency modulation. Bandwidth of FM modulated signal. Carsons' rule. Steremultiplex. Radio Data Signal.
  4. Propagation of electromagnetic waves. Direct and reflected signals. Doppler effect. Radiocommunication channel characteristics in time and frequency.
  5. Audio signal digitalization. Sampling frequency. Signal to noise ratio by using multibit quantization with Nyquist sampling frequency.
  6. Oversampling. Signal to noise ratio by using oversampling. Sigma delta converters. Noise shaping.
  7. Audio signal coding. Frequency and temporal masking. MPEG coding.
  8. Exam
  9. Digital modulation systems. Digital modulation of amplitude and phase. Quadrature amplitude modulation. Bits to symbols transformation. Channel capacity.
  10. Digital radiobroadcasting systems. Basics of Digital Audio Broadcasting System (DAB) and DAB+ system. Channel coding. Time and frequency interleaving.
  11. Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) and DRM+ system. Audio and channel coding.
  12. Basic characteristics of other digital radio broadcasting systems (DSR, ADR, HD Radio, DVB-T, DVB-T2, DMB).Internet radio. RadioDNS.
  13. Problems with transitions from analog to digital radio bradcasting systems. Comparison between systems. Digital radio-broadcasting in Croatia.
  14. Radio-station organization. Acoustic parameters of rooms.
  15. Final exam


John Watkinson (2001.), The MPEG Handbook, MPEG 1,2,4, Focal Press
B. Modlic, I. Modlic (1995.), Modulacije i modulatori, Školska knjiga
W. Hoegg, T. LauterBach (2003.), Digital Audio Broadcasting, Wiley
E.A. Lee, D.G, messerschmidt (1994.), Digital Communications, Kluwer Academic Publishers

For students


ID 91853
  Summer semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
8 Exercises
16 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

90 Excellent
76 Very Good
61 Good
50 Sufficient