Sensor Technologies

Course Description

Students get knowledge about the sensor classification, physical principles of the conversion of measured quantities into electric signals, and sensor manufacturing technologies. Static and dynamic characteristics, standards, realisations and applications of particular sensors will be commented. Definition and classification of sensors. Physical principles of the conversion of measured quantities into electric signal. Sensor manufacturing technologies. Semiconductor and MEMS technology. Sensors based on surface-acoustic wave (SAW). Nanotechnology. Temperature sensors. CCD sensors. Optical sensors. Radiation sensors. Magnetic field sensors. Displacement, velocity and acceleration sensors. Gyroscope. Force, strain and torque sensors. Pressure, flow, and level sensors. Humidity and moisture sensors. Electrochemical sensors. Gas concentration measurement. Biosensors.

Learning Outcomes

  1. explain sensor classification
  2. explain physical principles of the conversion of measured quantities into electric signal
  3. define sensor technical specifications
  4. describe sensor manufacturing technologies
  5. apply international standards for particular sensors
  6. select a suitable sensor for a given application

Forms of Teaching



Seminars and workshops


Independent assignments






Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 50 % 10 % 50 % 10 %
Seminar/Project 0 % 10 % 0 % 10 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 20 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 20 %
Final Exam: Oral 40 %
Exam: Written 50 % 40 %
Exam: Oral 40 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Sensors for conversion of nonelectrical quantities into electric signal. Transducers. Signal conditioning.
  2. Transducers for contact temperature measurements: resistance temperature detectors (RTD), thermistors, thermocouples, semiconductor sensors.
  3. Sensors for contactless temperature measurements: pyrometers, photo-diodes, photo-transistors, photo-resistors, bolometers, thermopile, pyroelectric sensors. Realisations of contactless thermometers. CCD sensors. Optical sensors. Radioactivity measurement.
  4. Magnetic field sensors. Induction magnetometer. Fluxgate. Hall effect sensor. Magnetoresistive sensors (AMR, GMR). SQUID.
  5. Displacement sensors: resistive, capacitive, variable reluctance, LDT, LVDT, magnetostrictive, ultrasonic, optical, digital encoders. Velocity measurement sensors (ultrasound, optical, magnetic).
  6. Accelerometers (piezoelectric, integrated - piezoresistive and capacitive). Gyroscope.
  7. Semiconductor and MEMS technology. Sensors based on surface-acoustic wave (SAW). Nanotechnology.
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Strain measurement: strain gauges. Force and torque measurement. Pressure sensors (capacitive, strain gauge, piezoresistive, vibrating string). Microphones.
  10. Flow sensors: differential pressure flow meters, vortex flow meters, rotameter, turbine flow meter, electromagnetic flow meter, ultrasonic flow meters, volumetric flow meters, thermal transport sensors.
  11. Humidity and moisture sensors: resistive, capacitive, self heating, electrolytic, IR absorption, nuclear, microwave.
  12. Level measurement: floats, temperature sensors, rotating paddle, vibrating level switches, hydrostatic pressure, gravimetric, capacitive, ultrasonic, radar and optical.
  13. Electrochemical sensors: potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric, calorimetric, optical, piezoelectric. Chemoresistors, chemocapacitors, chemotransistors. Gas concentration measurement: electrochemical, catalytic and infrared.
  14. Biosensors: calorimetric, potentiometric, amperometric, optical, piezoelectric, immunosensors.
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

University graduate
Audio Technologies and Electroacoustics (profile)
(1. semester)
Communication and Space Technologies (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Computational Modelling in Engineering (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Computer Engineering (profile)
Elective Course of the Profile (1. semester)
Computer Science (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Control Systems and Robotics (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Data Science (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Electrical Power Engineering (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Electric Machines, Drives and Automation (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Electronic and Computer Engineering (profile)
Specialization Course (1. semester) (3. semester) (1. semester)
Electronics (profile)
(3. semester)
Information and Communication Engineering (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Information Processing (profile)
Recommended elective courses (3. semester)
Network Science (profile)
Free Elective Courses (1. semester)
Software Engineering and Information Systems (profile)
Elective Course of the Profile (1. semester)


(.), M. Cifrek (2019.) Senzorske tehnologije - Prilog predavanjima,
Jacob Fraden (2010.), Handbook of Modern Sensors, Springer Science & Business Media
Ivan Piljac (2010.), Senzori fizikalnih veličina i elektroanalitičke metode, Udžbenici Sveučilišta u Zagrebu
John G. Webster (1999.), The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors: Handbook, Springer Science & Business Media
Bela G. Liptak (2003.), Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Fourth Edition, Volume One, CRC Press
Hans-Rolf Tränkler, Leonhard M. Reindl (2015.), Sensortechnik, Springer-Verlag

Associate Lecturers

Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 222655
  Winter semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
15 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

93 Excellent
82 Very Good
70 Good
50 Acceptable