Semiconductor Technology

Course Description

Progress and development of electronics and semiconductor technology. Principles and implication of scaling and Moore s law. Silicon crystal structure. Crystal growth and production of silicon wafers. Planar technology. Principles of process integration. Modern CMOS technology. Integration of fabrication steps in planar technology. Semiconductor doping methods: diffusion and ion implantation. Dopant distributions in silicon. Physical mechanisms of doping. Selectivity in semiconductor technology, lithography. Principles of isolation and passivization, thermal oxidation. Material removal in semiconductor technology, etching. Deposition of materials in semiconductor technology. Methods of on-chip interconnections of devices and circuit blocks. Metallization systems. Implementation of sensors in semiconductor technology. Micro electro mechanical systems. Limitations of semiconductor technology. New 3D semiconductor structures. Advanced 2D materials. Nano-technology.

Learning Outcomes

  1. describe the scaling of semiconductor electron devices
  2. explain the silicon crystal structure
  3. explain the process steps in semiconductor fabrication technology
  4. analyze the cross-sections of transistor structures
  5. identify phisical priciples of fabrication steps in semiconductor technology
  6. distinguish the limitations of modern semiconductor technology
  7. combine the process steps for the MOS and bipolar transistor fabrication

Forms of Teaching



Seminars and workshops






Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Seminar/Project 0 % 20 % 0 % 15 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 25 %
Final Exam: Oral 25 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Process integration, Front-end fabrication and limitations
  2. Back-end fabrication and limitations, Self-alignment and merging
  3. Semiconductor material properties, defects, impurities, specifications
  4. Diffusion
  5. Ion implantation, Doping profiles; Limitations
  6. Doping profiles; Limitations, Photolithography (projection and proximity)
  7. Advanced lithography techniques (e-beam, ultra-violet, stamping)
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Etching (principles, methods and equipment)
  10. Deposition (PVD, CVD); Implementations and limitations
  11. Oxidation (methods, models and limitations)
  12. Interconnects (technology, materials and characteristics), Metallization (technology, materials, characteristics)
  13. Electrical characteristics and limitations, Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
  14. MEMS and electron devices integration, Advanced sensor materials
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

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(.), James D. Plummer, Michael Deal, Peter B. Griffin (2000.), Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice, and Modeling, Prentice Hall,
(.), Stanley Wolf, Richard N. Tauber (2000.), Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era, Vol. 1: Process Technology, Lattice Press,
(.), P. Biljanović (2001.), Mikroelektronika Integrirani elektronički sklopovi, Školska knjiga,,


Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 222696
  Winter semester
L3 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
15 Exercises
4 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

87 Excellent
75 Very Good
62 Good
50 Acceptable