Robot Locomotion

Data is displayed for academic year: 2023./2024.

Associate Lecturers

Laboratory exercises

Course Description

Holonomic and non-holonomic modes of movement. Wheeled and tracked robots. Kinematics and control of robots with wheels and tracks. Walking robots (two-legged, four-legged, six-legged). Walking modes and planning. Kinematics, stability and control of walking robots. The analogy of the movement of humans and humanoid robots. The role of artificial intelligence in robot locomotion (vision, hearing, touch). Bio-inspired robots and movement modes (crawling, sliding, running, jumping).

Study Programmes

University graduate
[FER3-EN] Control Systems and Robotics - profile
Elective courses of the profile (3. semester)

Learning Outcomes

  1. Learn and understand the physical laws of locomotion.
  2. Describe kinematics and dynamics of moving robots.
  3. Become acquainted with the control modes for basic forms of locomotion.
  4. Plan and execute tasks during robot locomotion.
  5. Learn how to use humanoid robots in various applications
  6. Design new ways to control the robot's locomotion.

Forms of Teaching


School board, Power Point presentation, movies, practical robot demonstrations

Independent assignments

Seminar task: Presentation of a given subtopic by researching available sources from the Internet


Five laboratory exercises: robot on wheels, robot with caterpillars, six-legged robot, four-legged robot, two-legged robot

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 100 % 20 % 100 % 20 %
Seminar/Project 100 % 20 % 0 % 0 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 30 %
Exam: Written 50 % 80 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Holonomic locomotion, non-holonomic locomotion.
  2. Wheeled and tracked robot configurations, kinematics and dynamics of wheeled robots.
  3. Kinematics and dynamics of wheeled robots, Control of wheeled locomotion.
  4. Legged robot configurations
  5. Gait and motion planning
  6. Control and stability of legged robots
  7. Kinematics of legged robots (pose control)
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Trajectory formation in humans and robots
  10. Manipulation and hand control
  11. Reacting, Vision and grasping
  12. Hearing, Speech production and recognition, Tactile sensing, proprioception
  13. Crawling robots (worm-like motion), Sliding robots (snake-like robots)
  14. Running robots (insects, mammals), Jumping robots (hoppers)
  15. Final exam


(.), Z. Kovačić, F. Petric, D. Miklić, A. Babić, K. Hrvatinić, NAO Plays a Tic-Tac-Toe Game: Intelligent Grasping and Interaction, FER, February 2014.,
D. J. Todd (2013.), Walking Machines, Springer Science & Business Media
Marc H. Raibert (1986.), Legged Robots that Balance, MIT Press

For students


ID 223039
  Winter semester
L3 English Level
L3 e-Learning
30 Lectures
0 Seminar
0 Exercises
5 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

91 Excellent
81 Very Good
61 Good
51 Sufficient