Real-Time Systems

Course Description

In the course emphasis is set on software development for real time systems, introducing appropriate methods and development processes. Meeting timing constraints in complex multitask system is even harder problem, without general solution. Task scheduling principles that may be used in real time systems are presented and their benefits and drawbacks analyzed. Task scheduling, as well as other system properties, significantly depend on underlying operating system, thus operating system is also the subject of detailed analysis in the context of real time systems.

Learning Outcomes

  1. list real time system requirements
  2. illustrate methods and development processes for creating software components usable in real time systems
  3. evaluate scheduling feasibility while satisfying all timing constraints
  4. design and develop control program for simpler real time systems
  5. demonstrate usability of POSIX interface for adapting task scheduling, task synchronization and communication
  6. estimate usage of various methods, programs, operating systems and other components for real time environment

Forms of Teaching


Lectures are organized through two cycles: first last seven weeks and second six weeks. After first cycle is scheduled mid term exam and after second cycle comes final exam. Each week there are three hour lecture. Within some lectures students will be tested with short tests.

Independent assignments

Homework includes solving of the given problems (published in the first week): design and implementation accompanied by a short documentation. Result should be then uploaded and later presented for grading.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Real time system (RTS) design: requirements, RTS categories, complexity as problem.
  2. Real time system (RTS) design: informal and formal methods. UML diagrams. Petri nets.
  3. Designing control program: program loop, interrupts, alarms, multithreading.
  4. Designing control program: PID regulator, fuzzy logic controller.
  5. Periodic and aperiodic tasks: task properties, system classification.
  6. Periodic and aperiodic tasks: theoretical scheduling algorithms. Priority scheduling. The earliest deadline first scheduling. Least laxity first scheduling.
  7. Multiprocessor scheduling algorithms. Task scheduling in operating systems.
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Optimal schedulers. Static scheduling for simple periodic tasks.
  10. Operating system interfaces for time related operations. Clocks. Granularity. Signals.
  11. Synchronization and communication concerns in RTS
  12. Priority inversion. Recursive locking.
  13. Distributed systems. Some additional problems when creating software for RTS:
  14. Properties of real-time operating systems (RTOS). Overview of existing free and commercial RTOS.
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

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Leonardo Jelenković (2020.), Sustavi za rad u stvarnom vremenu, Online
Jane W. S. Liu (2000.), Real-Time Systems,
Nimal Nissanke (1997.), Realtime Systems,
Krishna (2010.), Real Time Systems, Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Alan Burns, Andrew J. Wellings (2001.), Real-time Systems and Programming Languages, Pearson Education

For students


ID 222791
  Winter semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning

Grading System

Very Good