Power System Planning and Operation

Data is displayed for academic year: 2023./2024.

Course Description

Exploitation characteristics of electric power system. Operational system states (normal, transient, emergency, critical, restorative). Daily electric power system load curve. System load curve approximation. Load curves: weekly, monthly and annually. System operation planning (daily, monthly and annually). Analytical functions for system operation planning. Analysis and checking of realized system operation. Load Forecasting (parable method, second order polynomial method, xpotentially method, logarithm parable method, Gompertz method, logistic method, empiric equation). Unit scheduling. Midterm unit commitment. Load following. Energy imbalance. System reserve (ready-import, spinning, stand by quick start, stand by slow start). Interconnection. Power and energy exchange between systems. System island operation. System blackout and restoration. Analysis of recently system blackouts. Grid code.

Study Programmes

University graduate
[FER3-EN] Electrical Power Engineering - profile
Elective courses (3. semester)

Learning Outcomes

  1. describe exploitation characteristics of electric power system
  2. generate system load curve (piece-wise linear approximations)
  3. predict future system load by using independent methods
  4. calculate transmission capacities of interconnecting lines
  5. plan the hydro-thermal scheduling in the system

Forms of Teaching


Lectures will provide a theoretical background to the students.


These will be used to solve numerical examples to the students.


Laboratory exercises will take part in a computer laboratory.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. System states and security, Load forecasting and management
  2. Economic load dispatch, Multi-area coordination
  3. Short-run marginal cost, Minimum stable operating level, Maximum rate of ramping up or down, Minimum time period the unit is up and/or down, Supply function equilibrium, Unit commitment models
  4. Hydro-thermal coordination, Least-cost dispatch of available generation, Generator megawatt dispatch, Voltage and stability constraints
  5. Objective functions, Security-constrained optimal power flow
  6. Nodal prices
  7. Interconnectors, Transfer capacities (base, total, net, avaliable, already allocated), Transmission Reliability Margin, Interconnection capacity
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Price area based congestion management, Analytic functions for power system operation planning, Realised operation analysis and control, Power system load forecasting
  10. Optimal role of units in a power system, Load following
  11. The Nature of the Transmission Business, Cost-based Transmission Expansion, Value-based Transmission Expansion, Regulated and negotiated Third Party Access
  12. Generation Capacity from an Investor’s Perspective, Generation Capacity from the Customers’ Perspective, Optimization models for Problems of Generation Investment, Dependent and independent forecasting methods, Regression models
  13. Daily load profile and load duration curve, Load duration curve approximation, Weekly, monthly and annual load profiles
  14. Grid code, ENTSO-E recommendations, ERGEG rules
  15. Final exam


Benjamin F. Hobbs, Michael H. Rothkopf, Richard P. O'Neill, Hung-po Chao (2006.), The Next Generation of Electric Power Unit Commitment Models, Springer Science & Business Media
Miguel F. Anjos, Antonio J. Conejo (2017.), Unit Commitment in Electric Energy Systems, Foundations and Trends in Electric Energy Systems

For students


ID 223096
  Winter semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning
30 Lectures
0 Seminar
15 Exercises
5 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

Very Good