Power System Dynamics and Control
Understanding of balance between power production and demand. Understanding of connections between load and frequency as well as voltage and reactive power. Ability for determination of most important parameters which define power system dynamic behavior.
- explain principles of balancing between active and reactive power in a power system
- name and explain types of power system regulation
- differentiate interconnected power system operation form islanding power system operation
- explain the connection between frequency and active power and between voltage and reactive power
- describe the process of frequency collapse in a power system and functioning of frequency load shedding system
- describe the voltage collapse process in a power system and functioning of undervoltage load shedding system
- name and explain types of power system stability
- identify the most important parameters which determine dynamic behaviour of synchronous machines and describe the impact of each parametr on the power system dynamics
Forms of Teaching
Three hours per week.Exams
Continuously: one writing exam, final exam (writing and oral examination) and three short tests. Classical Exam: writing and oral examination at the end of semester. Results of three short tests are included.Exercises
One hour per week. Solving numerical examples.Laboratory Work
Two laboratory exercises in Laboratory for Power Plants and Systems: 1. Droop of hydro and thermo power plants. 2. Unit stability.Consultations
Especcialy for seminar.Other
Visit and lecture in National Dispatch Centre.
|Type||Threshold||Percent of Grade||Threshold||Percent of Grade|
|Laboratory Exercises||0 %||4 %||0 %||4 %|
|Quizzes||0 %||9 %||0 %||9 %|
|Seminar/Project||0 %||10 %||0 %||10 %|
|Attendance||0 %||2 %||0 %||2 %|
|Mid Term Exam: Written||50 %||30 %||0 %|
|Final Exam: Written||50 %||30 %|
|Final Exam: Oral||15 %|
|Exam: Written||50 %||50 %|
|Exam: Oral||25 %|
Two points for technical visit. Points achieved on Laboratory, short tests and Seminar are admited to classical exam.
Week by Week Schedule
- Control characteristics of energy processes in power system production and transmission facilities. Control in power plants. Connection between load and frequency as well as voltage and reactive power.
- Turbine power speed characteristics. Load - frequency control in power systems. Stiffness. Speed-droop characteristic and frequency characteristics of the load. Composite governor and load characteristic. Governor dead band. Required active power for frequency control.
- Primary, secondary and tertiary load - frequency control system structure in power systems. Primary unit control. Automatic secondary control. Selected generation sets included in secondary control. Tertiary control and system operators.
- Frequency collapse and underfreqency load shedding. Most important parameters relevant for frequency deviation in the system. How operation with lowered frequency influences on turbine? Load categories. Frequency relays.
- Reactive power - voltage control in power systems. Voltage as power system local characteristics. Reactive power. Power system elements as reactive power loads. Most important reactive power consumers in the system.
- Voltage control devices. Condenser banks. Coils. Generators. Synchronous condensers. Static devices based on power electronics (SVC; STATCOM, FACTS, UPFC)
- Primary, secondary and tertiary reactive power - voltage control system structure in power systems. Primary control. Pilot nodes. Control zones. Automatic secondary voltage control. Coordinated automatic secondary voltage control. Tertiary control.
- Dynamic generation unit commitment in power plants (active and reactive power group control). Multi machines power plant. Dynamic characteristics of units. Speed of response. Forcing.
- Dynamic characteristics of electric machines, network, loads and interconnections. Inertia constant. Total mechanical constant. Characteristics of load. Parallel operation in interconnection.
- Unit behavior during disturbance. Influence of system disturbance on turbines, generators and auxiliary systems.
- Angle stability. Equal area criterion. Swing equation.
- Small signal stability and transient stability. Effects of excitation system. Critical time criteria.
- Power system voltage stability and voltage collapse. P-V curves. Bifurcation point. Static (predictors and correctors) and dynamic methods. Voltage stability indices.
- Long term and midterm stability. Inter area oscillations.
- Inteligent control system (WAMS). Smart transmission grids.