Process Measurements and Diagnostic in Power Plants

Course Description

Electrical measurement of nonelectric physical values. Gauges, registering meters and transducers. Standard voltage and current outputs. Measuring loop. Transducers for displacement, angle, pressure, vibration, force, torque, velocity, rotating speed, acceleration, level, flow, analytical parameters, temperature and radiation. Infra-red measuring techniques. Transducers for Ex zone. NAMUR output. Non-conventional measurements of electrical values (Rogowsky coil, optical measuring transformers). Intelligent measuring transducers. HART protocol. Local sensor networks and field busses. Computerized measuring systems.

General Competencies

Understanding the principles of measuring non-electrical quantities. Understanding technical documentation of measuring circuits in process measurement systems. Identifying the elements of measurement chains - sensors, transducers, indicators and recorders. Differentiation of instruments for measuring and diagnosing in power plants. Understanding computer supported measurement systems.

Learning Outcomes

  1. explain elements of measuring chaine
  2. distinguish measuring transducers of non-electric values
  3. describe non-conventional transducers of electric values
  4. describe infrared measuring technology
  5. identify inteiligent measuring transducers
  6. explain computerized measuring systems

Forms of Teaching


Lectures supported by Power Point presentations.


Demonstration of how to use specific measuring equipment.

Grading Method

By decision of the Faculty Council, in the academic year 2019/2020. the midterm exams are cancelled and the points assigned to that component are transferred to the final exam, unless the teachers have reassigned the points and the grading components differently. See the news for each course for information on knowledge rating.
Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Homeworks 50 % 20 % 50 % 20 %
Attendance 50 % 10 % 50 % 10 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 40 %
Exam: Written 50 % 70 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Gauges, registering meters and measuring transducers of non-electric values. Standard output voltage and current. Measuring loop 4-20 mA.
  2. Temperature measurement: RTD - Resistant Temperature Detectors (Pt 100, Pt 1000), thermocouple sensors, semiconductor sensors, pyrometers. Measurements of motor winding temperature, bearing temperature and cooling medium temperature.
  3. Infra-red measurements: IR thermometers, thermovision. Remote temperature measurement, defectoscoping of contact resistance, thermo-insulation damages.
  4. Pressure transducers. Measurement of hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic oil pressure, compressed air pressure, cooling hydrogen pressure, SF6 pressure.
  5. Flow measurement of air, steam and technical mediums. Turbine flow-meters, differential pressure flow-meters, Corioliss mass flow meters, inductive flow-meters, ultrasonic flow meters, Vortex flow meters. Measurements of water level, fuel level, technical mediums. Floats transmitters, hydrostatic transmitters, capacitive transmitters, ultrasonic and radar transmitters
  6. Measurements of water level, fuel level, technical mediums. Floats transmitters, hydrostatic transmitters, capacitive transmitters, ultrasonic and radar transmitters.
  7. Linear displacement measurement: LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), magnetostrictive transducers, non-contact transducers (capacitive, ultrasonic and laser), draw wire transducers. Measurement of turbine primary mover. Angle measurement: potentiometric and capacitive transducers. Achieving position of turbine butterfly–valve.
  8. Rotating speed measurement: tahogegeratos, optical tahometers. Asynchronous motor start-up testing.
  9. Measurement of acceleration, shock and vibration: accelerometers, vibration sensors. Bearing vibration diagnostic. Measuring transducers of torque and shaft strain. Force transducers. Measurements of strain force in overhead line rope.
  10. Measurements of water quality parameters: pH, redox potential, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, chloride, chlorophyll. Steam-generator water treatment. Waste water analyses
  11. Meteorological measurements: wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, relative humidity, solar radiation, rainfall.
  12. Radiation measurements: ionizating radiation detectors. Monitoring of nuclear plants.
  13. Measuring transducers for special purposes: Ex-i (intrinsically safe), transducers for explosion zones. Transducers with NAMUR output.
  14. Non-conventional measurements of electrical values: Rogowsky coil, optical measuring transformers.
  15. Inteligent sensors. HART protocol. Local sensor networks and field busses (Profibus DP, CAN-bus, M-bus, MOD-bus, LON-bus). Computerized measuring systems.

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
Electrical Power Engineering (module)
Elective Courses (6. semester)


James W. Dally, William F. Riley, Kenneth G. Mcconnell (1993.), Instrumentation for engineering measuraments, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
Grady C. Carroll (1962.), Industrial process measuring instruments, MCGRAW-HILL PUBLISHING COMPANY
P. H. Mansfield (1973.), Electrical transducers for industrial measurement, BUTTERWORTH & CO.
William David Cooper, Albert D. Helfrick (1970.), Electronic instrumentation and measurement techniques, PRENTICE-HALL, INC.
Ivan Piljac (2010.), Senzori fizikalnih veličina i elektroanalitičke metode, MEDIAPRINT TISKARA HRASTIĆ D.O.O.