Measurement Technique

Course Description

Fundamentals of measurements. Analogue and digital instruments: application and restrictions. Instruments with A/D converters. Quantisation principles. Transfer function and quantisation errors. Dual slope analogue to digital converters, voltage to frequency converters, Σ-Δ converters. Parameters of the converters, restrictions and uncertainty in measurement. Digital to analogue converters: transfer function and codes, parameters. Programmable devices and interfaces. Digital instruments (multimeters, multichannel, precise, electrometers): parameters and interpretation of the results. Interfaces for parallel transmission: GPIB (IEEE-488), VMEbus/VXIbus and PXI interface. Interface control and programme. Drivers for measuring instruments (SCPI, IVI, VISA). Accuracy and influencing quantities. Intererence and shielding. Noise and its cancellation. Measurement of low dc voltage and current. TEMS. Measurement of low and high impedances. Resistivity measurement of (semi)conductive materials. Applications.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe needed characteristics of digital equipment for different purposes
  2. Describe different types of AD converters
  3. Use different computer interfaces
  4. Analyze possibilities and restrictions of the use of modern measuring instruments and systems
  5. Develop new automated methods of measurement
  6. Conclude about possible accuracy improvement for particular measurements

Forms of Teaching


Using the modern methods and demonstration

Independent assignments


Work with mentor

Leading the students, small projects

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Measuring instruments with A/D converters
  2. Parameters of A/D converters, limits and accuracy
  3. Signal to noise ratio and effective number of bits
  4. Digital multimeters - measuring capabilities, parameters and measurement accuracy
  5. Programmable instruments and interfaces
  6. Control Programs for Measuring Instruments (SCPI, IVI, VISA)
  7. Vatmeters and varmeters, Electronic energy meters
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Methods for testing and calibration of energy meters, Special types of meters
  10. Quality of electric energy
  11. Measurement of small DC and AC voltages and currents and their applications
  12. Measurement of small and high Impedances. Measurement of resistivity of materials
  13. Influencing quantities, Conductively coupled error sources
  14. Capacitively coupled error sources, Magnetic and electric shielding
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

University graduate
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V. Bego (2003.), Mjerenja u elektrotehnici, Graphis, Zagreb
J. McGhee, W. Kulesza, M.J. Korczyński, I.A. Henderson (2001.), Measurement Data Handling, vol. 1 and vol. 2, Technical University of Lodz
SCPI Consortium (1994.), Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments, SCPI Consortium
K. James (2000.), PC Interfacing and Data Acquisition: Techinques for Measurements, Instrumentation and Control, Newnes
Robert H. Bishop (2010.), Learning With Labview 2009, Prentice Hall
Robert B. Northrop (2017.), Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements, Taylor & Francis Group
Giorgio Rizzoni (2004.), Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering, McGraw Hill Professional
W. Nawrocki (2016.), Measurement Systems and Sensors, Artech House
Alan S. Morris, Reza Langari (2020.), Measurement and Instrumentation: Theory and Application, Academic Press
(2004.), Low Level Measurements Handbook, Keithley Instruments

For students


ID 222447
  Winter semester
L3 English Level
L1 e-Learning
30 Lectures
6 Exercises
13 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

Very Good