Introduction to Virtual Environments

Data is displayed for academic year: 2023./2024.

Course Description

Introduction to Virtual Environments offers an overview of interactive 3D graphics, virtual environments and their applications. After the introduction of the field and an overview of applications, we introduce the concept of the virtual scene with its basic components – geometry, materials, lighting and camera – and present the methods of modeling all these components of the scene. The basic geometry transforms (translation, rotation with several techniques, scaling, projection) serve as basis for the next big section: rendering. Rendering is introduced through the example of ray tracing, followed by the traversal of the classical graphics rendering pipeline and presentation of basic techniques involved in rendering. In the second part of the semester we deal with scene organization, intersection testing/collision detection and interaction, followed by introductions to networked virtual environments, virtual and augmented reality and visualization.

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
[FER3-EN] Computing - study
Elective Courses (6. semester)
[FER3-EN] Electrical Engineering and Information Technology - study
Elective Courses (6. semester)

Learning Outcomes

  1. define the concept of virtual environment
  2. define the concept of virtual scene and all its elements
  3. use 3D graphics tools and APIs
  4. model 3D objects
  5. participate in projects applying 3D virtual environments
  6. develop applications of virtual environments

Forms of Teaching


Two live lectures per week


Assignments can be performed independently

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 25 % 0 % 25 %
Class participation 0 % 6 % 0 % 6 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 34 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 35 %
Exam: Written 0 % 69 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Virtual environments - introduction and applications
  2. Modeling the scene: geometry, camera
  3. Modeling the scene: lighting, materials
  4. Geometric transformations, coordinate system transformations
  5. Rendering: ray tracing, computer graphics pipeline
  6. Rendering: illumination models, shading, texture mapping
  7. Rendering: visibility and occlusion, transparency, antialiasing, double buffering
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Scene organization, standard media formats, languages, formats, and application programming interfaces (APIs) for virtual environments
  10. Intersection testing and collision detection
  11. Interaction in virtual environments
  12. Networked virtual environments
  13. Virtual reality, augmented reality
  14. Visualization
  15. Final exam


(.), Virtualna okruženja: Interaktivna 3D grafika i njene primjene, Igor S. Pandžić, Tomislav Pejša, Krešimir Matković, Hrvoje Benko, Aleksandra Čereković, Maja Matijašević;, Element - Manualia Universitatis Studiorum Zagrabiensis, 2011.,
(.), Real-Time Rendering, 3rd edition, Tomas Akenine-Möller, Eric Haines, Naty Hoffman, A. K. Peters Ltd., 2008. ISBN 978-1-56881-424-7,

For students


ID 223376
  Summer semester
L0 English Level
L1 e-Learning
30 Lectures
0 Seminar
0 Exercises
8 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

90 Excellent
75 Very Good
65 Good
55 Sufficient