Fundamentals of Wireless Systems

Course Description

Types of wireless systems. Basic components of wireless systems. Radio frequency spectrum management and allocation of frequencies. Noise in wireless communication systems. Wireless link, Friis equation. Signal generators, oscillators, synthesizers, phase noise. Basic antenna parameters. Intermodulation distortion. Mixing, mixers, intermediate frequency, filters. Amplifiers, gain, stability, efficiency. Receiver noise figure, sensitivity and dynamic range. Superheterodyne receiver. Human exposure to electromagnetic fields and protection.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe the types, applications and frequency bands of wireless systems
  2. Explain the basic components of a wireless systems and their operating principles
  3. Calculate the parameters of the wireless link
  4. Explain the impact of noise on wireless systems
  5. Relate the parameters of propagation models with the parameters of wireless system
  6. Calculate gain, noise figure and third order intercept point of a wireless receiver
  7. Compare different architectures of wireless receivers

Forms of Teaching


live or online, presentation of theoretical principles and practical examples, discussions


numerical examples from practice

Field work

visits to companies that are operators or users of wireless systems


hands-on experience in measurements on wireless systems and their components

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 50 % 0 % 50 % 0 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 25 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 25 %
Final Exam: Oral 50 %
Exam: Written 50 % 50 %
Exam: Oral 50 %


Week by Week Schedule

  1. Radio frequency regulation. Spectrum management.
  2. Wireless systems, broadcasting system (digital picture and sound broadcasting), mobile communications, satellite communications and navigation. Wireless sensor networks. Cognitive radio, software defined radio.
  3. Propagation mechanisms (transmission, reflection, diffraction, scattering), path loss. Friis transmission equation.
  4. Noise types, noise of electronic components, white noise. Equivalent noise temperature, noise figure. Noise temperature and noise figure of cascaded components.
  5. Signal generators, oscillators, synthesizers, phase noise.
  6. Antenna, input impedance, efficiency, radiation pattern, directivity, gain, effective aperture, polarization.
  7. Antenna noise temperature.
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Nonlinear networks, harmonic components and intermodulation products. Compression point. Third order intercept point. Passive intermodulation.
  10. Mixers, principle of operation, specifications, Up-conversion and down-conversion, rejection of image frequency, RF-LO isolation.
  11. Amplifiers, gain definitions, stability, noise. Power amplifiers.
  12. Minimum detectable signal, receiver sensitivity, dynamic range. Selection of intermediate frequency. Spurious-free range.
  13. Receiver architectures, superheterodyne receiver, receiver noise figure.
  14. Exposure to electromagnetic fields, standards and regulations, dosimetric quantities in different frequency ranges, basic restrictions and reference levels. Protection from exposure to electromagnetic fields.
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
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Elective Courses (6. semester)
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Bonefačić, Davor (2016.), RF sustavi - interna skripta, FER, Zagreb
Antene i radiosustavi (2001.), Zentner, Ervin, Graphis, Zagreb
Bartolić, Juraj (2011.), Mikrovalna elektronika, Graphis, Zagreb
Modlic, Borivoj; Bartolić, Juraj (1995.), Miješanje, mješala i sintetizatori frekvencije, Školska knjiga, Zagreb
Pozar, D.M. (2000.), Microwave and RF Design of Wireless Systems, J. Wiley
William F. Egan (2004.), Practical RF System Design, John Wiley & Sons

Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 183474
  Summer semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning
60 Lectures
0 Seminar
0 Exercises
10 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

89 Excellent
78 Very Good
67 Good
55 Acceptable