Fundamentals of Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation

Course Description

The course gives an overview of fundamentals of electronic measurement systems and elements of electronic instrumentation. Contents: Digital multimeter and oscilloscope. Eelectronic measurements, electronic measurement channel, static and dynamic characteristics, electromagnetic interferences, signal sources and acquisition. Sensors. Amplifiers. Noise. Voltage references. Analog-to-digital conversion. Measurement data communication. Examples and exercises.

General Competencies

Basic understanding of electronic measurement channel concept, knowledge of selection of its components as well as of impact of interferences and noise. Practical experience on a real implementation.

Learning Outcomes

  1. apply electronic measurement equipment
  2. describe electronic measurement channel and define it’s key parameters
  3. select mode of connecting signal source to measurement channel
  4. explain influence of interference and noise and estimate their impact
  5. employ various sensors
  6. estimate parameters of a voltage reference
  7. select an analog to digital converter and estimate the device error

Forms of Teaching


Three hours lectures per week for 15 weeks.


There are short written tests on each laboratory exercise. Mid exam is written and final exam has written and oral part. Students who do not pass through continuous tests can take a written and oral exam at the end of semester.


Tutorials cover numerical examples from the various course topics, as well as preparation for laboratory exercises. The tutorials are held for one additional academic hour per week.

Laboratory Work

Laboratory exercises provide hands-on experience on practical implementation of the basic concepts. There are 6 laboratory exercises. The first two deal with laboratory instruments and electromagnetic interferences. The rest cover details of electronic measurement channel on s digital balance.


Students have weekly scheduled consultations with both professor and assistant.


Two home works are given as preparation for written exams.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 20 % 0 % 20 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 25 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 25 %
Final Exam: Oral 30 %
Exam: Written 50 % 40 %
Exam: Oral 40 %

Student must complete all laboratory exercises.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Electronic measurements and electronic measurement systems. Basic concepts: accuracy, precision, sensitivity, measurement uncertainty.
  2. Electronic measurement channel. Functional elements. Sensor. Signal conditioning and analog processing. Analog-to-digital conversion. Voltage references. Static and dynamic characteristics.
  3. Grounding. Types of signal sources (asymmetric, differential, floating) and their connection to a measurement circuit. Common and serial interference. Common mode rejection ratio.
  4. Electromagnetic interference. Sources, kinds of coupling and reduction of the influence on sensor signals.
  5. Measurement of voltage and current. Measurement of time and frequency. Digital multimeter. Analog and digital oscilloscope.
  6. Sensors, part 1: resistive temperature detectors, thermistors, strain gauges. Capacitive and inductive sensors. Principle of operation and connection to measurement circuit.
  7. Sensors part 2: piezoelectric sensors, thermocouple, photodiode, Hall sensor. Principle of operation and connection to measurement circuit.
  8. Mid term exam - written
  9. Amplifiers, part 1: operational amplifier, basic parameters. Offset. Slew-rate. Basic asymmetric amplifier circuits.
  10. Amplifiers, part 2: analysis of differential amplifier, common mode rejection ratio. Instrumentation amplifier, topologies and parameters.
  11. Physical origin and kinds of noise. Noise parameters. Thermal noise. Shot noise. 1/f noise. Amplifier equivalent circuit and total output noise. Signal to noise ratio.
  12. Voltage references in electronic measurement channel. Specification of a voltage reference. Basic topologies of the Zenner and bandgap based voltage references.
  13. Analog-to-digital conversion, part 1: signal sampling and quantization. Sampling frequnecy selection, aliasing. Sample and hold circuit analysis. Quantization error and quantization noise. Oversampling and quantization noise filtering, increase in ADC’s resolution.
  14. Analog-to-digital conversion, part 2: quantizator static characteristic, INL, DNL. ENOB. Selection of an ADC. ADC basic topologies: flash converter, successive approximation converter, voltage to frequency converter, two slope converter, delta-sigma converter. Interconnecting ADC to a microcontroller. Measurement data transmission and vizualization.
  15. Final exam - written and oral

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
[FER2-HR] Computer Engineering - module
Elective Courses (6. semester)
[FER2-HR] Electrical Power Engineering - module
Elective Courses (6. semester)
[FER2-HR] Electronic and Computer Engineering - module
(6. semester)
[FER2-HR] Electronics - module
Elective Courses (6. semester)


C. F. Coombs (1994.), Electronic instrument handbook, Mc-Graw-Hill
A. FP Van Putten (1996.), Electronic measurement systems, Taylor&Francis
A. Šantić (1993.), Elektronička instrumentacija, Školska knjiga
Vedran Bilas, Goran Horak, Tihomir Marjanović, Zoran Stare, Darko Vasić (2013.), Osnove elektroničkih mjerenja i instrumentacije, laboratorijske vježbe, Sveučilište u Zagrebu Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva

Associate Lecturers


Laboratory exercises

For students


ID 86493
  Summer semester
L0 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
15 Exercises
15 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

90 Excellent
75 Very Good
60 Good
50 Sufficient