Fundamentals of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Data is displayed for academic year: 2023./2024.

Course Description

The course elaborates on physics and technical characteristics of road, flying electric vehicles, electric ships and railroad electric vehicles. It analyzes drives, specially hybrid and electric drives. Internal combustion engines and electric motors are elaborated. An overview of the safety features of electric vehicles, along with a legal framework is provided. Ecological impacts of electric vehicles are analyzed, as well as battery disposal issues.

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
[FER3-EN] Computing - study
Elective Courses (6. semester)
[FER3-EN] Electrical Engineering and Information Technology - study
Elective Courses (6. semester)

Learning Outcomes

  1. explain the operating principles of an electric vehicle
  2. design basic elements of an electric vehicle (motor, batteries)
  3. explain safety requirements of electric vehicles
  4. analyze the consequences of electric vehicle monetary incentives
  5. prepare basic laboratory battery testing
  6. prepare basic laboratory electric motor testing
  7. analyze the impact of electric vehicles on the environment
  8. analyze the impact of electric vehicles on the power system

Forms of Teaching


Lectures will be carried out by a professor.


These will be conducted through solving numerical examples.


There will be two laboratory exercises with smaller groups of students.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 8 % 0 % 8 %
Quizzes 0 % 10 % 0 % 10 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 35 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 35 %
Final Exam: Oral 12 %
Exam: Written 0 % 70 %
Exam: Oral 12 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Road Vehicles Physics , Flying Vehicles Physics , Ship Physics , Railroad Vehicles Physics
  2. Overview of Road Vehicles
  3. Overview of Flying Vehicles , Overview of Ship Physics , Overview of Railroad Vehicles
  4. Overview of Drive Systems , Characteristics of Internal Combustion Engines
  5. Characteristics of Electric Motors, Overview of Hybrid Drive Systems
  6. Overview of Electric Drive Systems
  7. Road Vehicles Safety Aspects , Flying Vehicles Safety Aspects , Ship Safety Aspects , Railroad Vehicles Safety Aspects
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Overview of hybrid EV share and perspective in European Union and Croatia, Incentives for hybrid and EVs
  10. Impact on emissions and comparison with ICE vehicles, Battery production issues
  11. Battery production issues, Battery lifetime and recycling procedures
  12. Supplying electricity to electric cars, Distribution network requirements
  13. Range, energy consuption and cycle efficiency
  14. Battery types and characteristics, Battery economy
  15. Final exam


Iqbal Husain (2010.), Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Design Fundamentals, Second Edition, CRC Press
Nikowitz, Michael (2016.), Advanced Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, Springer

For students


ID 223369
  Summer semester
L0 English Level
L1 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
15 Exercises
0 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

91 Excellent
81 Very Good
71 Good
61 Sufficient