Electrotechnical Measurements

Course Description

Basic measurements and testing of electrical machines, transformers and power systems. Current and voltage measuring transformers. Design and types of measuring transformers. Testing and error determination of measuring transfomers. Partial discharge measurements. In-situ insulation measurements of power equipment. Nonconventional measuring transformers. Methods of high DC and AC current measurements. Grounding systems. Measurement of earth ground resistances and soil resistivity. Diagnostics of power cables and lines. High voltages (HV) generation in switchgear. Lightning strokes and lightning location systems. Insulation coordination. Generation and measurement of HV AC, impulse voltages and HV DC in HV laboratory. Generation and measurement of impulse currents. Methods and procedures of HV measurement and testing: spark gap; capacitive and resistive dividers, current shunts.

Learning Outcomes

  1. distinguish measurement methods of electrical quantities in power systems
  2. define and measure characteristics of measuring transformers
  3. apply nonconventional methods in high current measurements
  4. produce reliable earth grounding systems
  5. identify breakdowns in power cables and lines
  6. identify the high voltage transformers and generators in laboratory and in service
  7. analyze the results of HV testing
  8. apply the data from lightning location systems

Forms of Teaching


Teaching on the subject is organized through two teaching cycles. The first cycle consists of 7 weeks of classes and midterm exams, while the second cycle contains 6 weeks of classes and a final exam. Classes are conducted for a total of 15 weeks with a weekly load of 2 hours.

Independent assignments

Checking the acquired knowledge through practical homework tasks.


As part of laboratory exercises, students will be able to practice measurements on transformers and magnetic measurements, and several demonstration exercises in the field of high voltage and current measurement techniques will be presented as well.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 20 % 0 % 0 %
Homeworks 0 % 20 % 0 % 0 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 30 %
Exam: Written 30 % 0 %
Exam: Oral 30 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Ideal and realistic instrument transformer. Voltage and current vector diagram. Instrument transformer errors sources.
  2. Inductive voltage and current instrument transformers. Realization and standard requirements.
  3. Amplitude and phase error diagram (Möllinger-Gewecke diagram). Measurement of errors of measuring transformers.
  4. Testing of magnetic properties of transformer core. Wattmetric method for core-losses measurement.
  5. Measurement of transformer winding resistance and leakage inductance. Measurement of insulation loss angle. Partial discharge measurements.
  6. Non-conventional measuring transducers. Magnetic transducers. Measurement of high DC currents. Magneto-optical current transformer. Voltage optical instrument transformer.
  7. Grounding of sources and loads. Earthing systems. Earthing resistance measurement. Measurement of soil resistivity (specific soil resistance).
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Requirements and safety of HV testing laboratory
  10. Capacitive dividers. Spherical spark gaps.
  11. Measurements and testing using impulse voltages and impulse currents.
  12. Measurement of isolation resistance. Measurement of protective characteristics of metal-oxide surge arresters.
  13. Measurements and testing using HVDC voltages.
  14. Visit
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

University graduate
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V. Bego (1977.), Mjerni transformatori, Školska knjiga, Zagreb
V. Bego (2003.), Mjerenja u elektrotehnici, 9. dopunjeno izdanje, Graphis, Zagreb
M. S. Naidu (2009.), High Voltage Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Education
John Kuffel, Peter Kuffel (2000.), High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals, Elsevier

For students


ID 222499
  Winter semester
L3 English Level
L1 e-Learning
30 Lectures
13 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

90 Excellent
79 Very Good
67 Good
55 Acceptable

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