Distribution Networks and Distribution Generation

Course Description

Configuration of distribution networks. Load forecasting, Analysis of the distribution networks. Building and operation. Network elements. Substation design.DSO/DNO. Quality of supply. Connections and interconnections - practice and standards. Active distribution network Distributed resources. DG impact on planning and operation. Micro-grids and VPP. DG and network security. Economics of DG. Introduction to network optimization.

General Competencies

The objectives of the course are to give the students the knowledge about low voltage power systems. Upon the completition of the course, students will be qualified to do following: 1.planning and design of passive distribution networks; 2. planning and design of active distribution networks; 3. planning and design of distributed generation.

Learning Outcomes

  1. explain and give example of electricity distribution business
  2. explain operation and function of electricity distribution within electric power system
  3. apply proper design of electricity distribution network regarding their function
  4. assemble electricity distribution network
  5. analyze and forecast load demand in distribution networks
  6. analyze and planinng of electricity distribution networks
  7. design of electricity distribution networks with integrated distributed generation
  8. evaluate impactof distributed generation on operation of electricity distribution networks

Forms of Teaching


Lectures have blendid or mixed learning approach. Part of lectures are in live in the classroom, using old and modern presentation techniques, short movies and simulations in software. Additional literature, numerical example, simulations and internet links are available for the students in Moodle.


Writen examination consist of solving numerical examples that represent simplification of real engineering problems from the domain of distribution networks and distributed generation. Oral examination is focused on the assesment of creativity in solving real engineering problems from the domain of distribution networks and distributed generation using.


Solving numerical examples and simulations.

Structural Exercises

Students have unique project with distribution network calculations before and after connection of distributed generation in the part of real distribution network.


Moodle is used for distribution of educational material and assesment.

Internship visits

During the semester two professional visits are organized: typical MV/LV substations and DMS center; several locations with distributed generation.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Seminar/Project 0 % 30 % 0 % 30 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 30 %
Final Exam: Oral 10 %
Exam: Written 50 % 60 %
Exam: Oral 10 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. organization of electricity distribution business in Croatia and EU
  2. distribution networks in Europe and rest of world; distribution networks in electric power system; design of distribution networks
  3. components of distribution networks; distribution transformer stations; design of distribution substations; cable networks
  4. load demand and consumption forecast in distribution networks
  5. voltage regulation and reactive power management in distribution networks; quality of voltage
  6. analysis and calculations in distribution networks; short circuit calculations; neutral grounding in distribution networks; loss calculation
  7. protection ad automation in distribution networks; SCADA in distribution networks
  8. quality of supply; reliabilty indices and security of supply; planning of distribution networks
  9. distributted generation amd RES - technologies, overview
  10. distributed generation modelling; computer models
  11. statiy analysis of sitribution networks with distributed generation
  12. integration of distributed generation in LV distribution networks
  13. transient analysis of distribution networks with distributed generation
  14. voltage regulation, reactive power management and power quality in distribution networks with distributed generation
  15. concept of SmartGrids; demad side management; microgrids; virtual power plants; e-mobility

Study Programmes

University graduate
Electrical Power Engineering (profile)
Specialization Course (1. semester) (3. semester)


H.Lee Willis,Walter G. Scot (.), Distributed Power Generation, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
William H. Kersting (2002.), Distribution System Modeling and Analysis, CRC Press
E.Lakervi,E.J.Holmes (1995.), Electricity Distribution Network Design, IEE
N.Jenkins,R.Allan,P. Crossley,D.Kirschen,G.Strbac (2000.), Embedded Generation, IEE



ID 86522
  Winter semester
L2 English Level
L2 e-Learning
30 Lectures
15 Exercises
0 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

91 Excellent
81 Very Good
71 Good
61 Acceptable