Control System Elements

Data is displayed for academic year: 2023./2024.

Associate Lecturers

Laboratory exercises

Course Description

Types and characteristics of sensors of process variables. Signal transmitters and transducers. Types and characteristics of actuators. Pneumatic, hydraulic and electric motors. Control valves. Modelling of electric motors (DC, AC, SM, step). Modelling of power amplifiers (thyristor, transistor). Cascade control of servo-systems. Synthesis methods for PI controller. Concept of feedforward control. Characteristics of sevo-systems. Conditioning of control reference. Load estimation and compensation. Concept of adaptive and robust control of servo-systems.

Study Programmes

University undergraduate
[FER3-EN] Computing - study
Elective Courses (5. semester)
[FER3-EN] Electrical Engineering and Information Technology - study
Elective Courses (5. semester)

Learning Outcomes

  1. Razumjeti uloge elemenata sustava upravljanja
  2. Razlikovati nelinearne i linearne elemente
  3. Razumjeti fizikalne principe djelovanja elemenata
  4. Razlikovati obična i inteligentna osjetila
  5. Razumjeti probleme u sustavima automatskog upravljanja
  6. Primjenjivati metode estimacije i principe predupravljanja

Forms of Teaching


Lectures are conducted in the form of writing and interpreting material on the board, using Power point slides and multimedia content. Numerous examples from engineering practice are also given.

Independent assignments

Students receive a thematic task related to specific elements of the automation system, which includes researching sources on the Internet (web project).

Multimedia and the internet

The students are shown recorded educational films that talk about certain elements of the automation system that they cannot currently meet live in the Laboratory.


In the laboratory for which new laboratory equipment was purchased, students work on two cycles of exercises with pneumatic elements, sensors and laboratory models of a regulated DC electric drive.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 0 % 18 % 0 % 0 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 40 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 40 %
Final Exam: Oral 20 %
Exam: Written 51 % 60 %
Exam: Oral 40 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Temperature, light, ionizing radiation, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, strain, force pressure, flow, level, humidity, moisture
  2. Temperature, light, ionizing radiation, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, strain, force pressure, flow, level, humidity, moisture
  3. Electromagnetic, electrochemical, biosensors
  4. Pneumatic transducers, Electric transducers, P/E transmitters, E/P transmitters
  5. Characteristics of actuators and motors, Pneumatic actuators
  6. Hydraulic actuators, Control valves
  7. Electric actuators (DC motors, AC motors, synchronous motors, step motors), Modelling of electric motors
  8. Midterm exam
  9. Modelling of electric motors
  10. Modelling of electric power amplifiers, Static and dynamic characterstics of electromechanical systems
  11. Control (P, PI, PD, PID) of current, speed and position loops; Cascade control, Synthesis of PI control (technical and symmetrical optimum)
  12. Feedforward control, Characteristics of servo systems, Conditioning of control reference in servo systems
  13. Load estimation and compensation, Disturbance estimation (load, friction)
  14. Disturbance estimation (load, friction), Adaptive and robust control of servo systems
  15. Final exam


(.), Elementi sustava automatizacije - Bilješke za predavanja / Control System Elements – Lecture notes; Z. Kovačić, S. Bogdan; Zavod za APR, FER Zagreb.; 2014,
(.), Sensors and Actuators – Control System Instrumentation; Clarence W. de Silva; CRC Press; 2007; ISBN: 9781420044843,
(.), Control Techniques Drives and Controls Handbook; Bill Drury; The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, UK; 2009; ISBN: 0852967934,
(.), Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Fourth Edition, Volume One; Bela G. Liptak; CRC Press; 2003; ISBN: 1420064029,
(.), Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition; John G. Webster, Halit Eren; CRC Press; 2014; ISBN: 9781439848883,

For students


ID 223347
  Winter semester
L1 English Level
L3 e-Learning
45 Lectures
0 Seminar
0 Exercises
14 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

91 Excellent
81 Very Good
61 Good
51 Sufficient