Biomedical Signals and Systems

Course Description

The discipline of biomedical engineering, a historical perspectives and contemporary trends. The human body: an overview. Basic electrophysiology. Cell and cellular mechanisms. Bioelectricity. Physiologic systems. Nervous system. Muscular system. Circulatory system. Respiratory system. Sensing systems. Homeostasis. Body as a control system. Bioelectric potentials and their main features (ECG, EEG, EMG, ENG and ERG). Registration techniques and problems. Electrodes. Overview of other biomedical signals. Therapeutic electromedical equipment. The most important techniques and devices. Diagnostic medical imaging. Equipment and techniques. Fundamental physical and medical limitations. Methods for quality evaluation processing. Estimation of diagnostic value processing. Patient safety and safety assurance in modern medical facilities.

General Competencies

The purpose of this course is to serve as an introduction to and an overview of the field of biomedical engineering. Considering this purpose, a link between biomedicine and electrical engineering will be given. Students should be able to understand and define the discipline of biomedical engineering, basic physiological and electrophysiological mechanisms, basic bioelectric signals, electrodes and registration techniques. They will also acquire an introductory knowledge about the most important diagnostic and therapeutic electromedical equipment and safety assurance in medical facilities.

Learning Outcomes

  1. describe physiological systems in the human body
  2. distinguish main features of biomedical signals
  3. describe biomedical signal registration techniques
  4. compare biomedical signals registration and analysis methods for the particular problem solving
  5. explain functioning of diagnostic medical imaging systems
  6. appraise applicability of the particular medical imaging method

Forms of Teaching


Lectures are focused on theoretical and practical aspects of key course topics (two hours per week).


Continuous evaluation encompasses two written exams (midterm and final exam). Students who do not satisfy at continuous evaluation must undertake both the written and oral exam. Students are questioned at the laboratory exercises and they also collect the points for a practical project.

Laboratory Work

Students are obliged to take laboratory exercises (15 hours). During the laboratory exercises, students learn about biomedical signal measurement and analysis on practical examples.


Consultations for students are held once per week.


Students (in groups of up to three students) explore a theme or subject of interest related to the course.

Internship visits

During the semestar, professional visits to laboratories for recording and analysis of biomedical signals will be arranged.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 50 % 10 % 50 % 10 %
Seminar/Project 0 % 10 % 0 % 10 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 20 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 20 %
Final Exam: Oral 40 %
Exam: Written 50 % 40 %
Exam: Oral 40 %

Work on project is divided into two parts: the first part must be submitted after 7th week, and the complete technical documentation must be finished in the last week of the semester.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. The discipline of biomedical engineering, a historical perspectives.
  2. The human body as a system. Homeostasis. Body as a control system.
  3. Cell and cellular mechanisms. Sensory receptors.
  4. Nervous system. Information transmission. Muscular system. Electromyography.
  5. Reflex arc. Central nervous system. Electroencephalography. Electroretinography. Electronistagmography. Electrogastrography.
  6. EEG and evoked potentials recording.
  7. Vibration somatosensory evoked potentials. Sternberg auditory memory experiment and cognitive evoked potentials. Voluntary movement evoked potentials.
  8. Midterm exam.
  9. Circulatory system. Heart function. Electrocardiography.
  10. Blood pressure. Blood pressure measurement methods.
  11. Phonocardiography. Vectorcardiography. Respiratory system.
  12. Medical imaging systems. Roentgen. Fluoroscopy. Digital subtraction angiography.
  13. Computer tomography. Gama camera. Single-photon emission computed tomography.
  14. Positron emission tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  15. Final exam.

Study Programmes

University graduate
Electronic and Computer Engineering (profile)
Specialization Course (3. semester)
Information Processing (profile)
Recommended elective courses (3. semester)


A. Šantić (1995.), Biomedicinska elektronika, Školska knjiga
A. J. Vander, J. H. Sherman, D. S. Luciano (2001.), Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function, Mc Graw Hill, N.Y., USA
J. J. Carr, J. M. Brown (2000.), Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, Prentice Hall
John Denis Enderle, Joseph D. Bronzino, Susan M. Blanchard (2005.), Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Academic Press

Associate Lecturers

Laboratory exercises