Biomedical Instrumentation

Course Description

Biomedical sensors and transducers. Bioelectric amplifiers. Electromagnetic interference suppression techniques. Electrocardiographs. Physiological pressure and other cardiovascular measurements and devices. Instrumentation for measurement brain parameters. Biological impedance measurement. Respiratory system and its measurement. Intensive and coronary care units. Pacemakers and defibrilators. Electrosurgery. Lasers. Medical imaging equipment. Radiology and nuclear medicine equipment. Medical ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging.

Learning Outcomes

  1. classify sensors and transducers in biomedical instrumentation
  2. design biomedical amplifiers. Apply basic methods of suppressing electromedical interference.
  3. design ECG and EEG, blood pressure and flow meters
  4. design (measure) biological impedance and respiratory parameters
  5. compare the modes of operation of heart electrostimulators and defibrillators
  6. describe the operating principles of a VF surgical devices and laser
  7. compare modes of obtaining medical diagnostic images in radiology, nuclear medicine, ultrasound diagnostics and magnetic resonance imaging

Forms of Teaching


Lectures will be held in the lecture hall at the faculty.


Problems and examples are solved within the lecture

Field work

Visit to a clinical institution


Laboratory exercises will be held in the laboratory at the Department.

Work with mentor

Students are invited to discuss the course topics of interest with their teachers.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Laboratory Exercises 50 % 20 % 50 % 20 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 50 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 50 % 30 %
Final Exam: Oral 20 %
Exam: Written 50 % 40 %
Exam: Oral 40 %

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Types: passive, active, biosensors, Electrodes, Sensors: electrical, optical, electrochemical, electromechanical
  2. Bioamplifiers in the ECG, EEG, Recording systems, Artefacts and electromagnetic interference, Sensing, conditioning, processing and analysis methods for designing the BMI
  3. Blood pressure, sound, flow and volume of blood, respiration sensors, Clinical applications
  4. Physiological effects of electricity, Macro and microshock hazards, Risk analysis and groups, Safe equipment design
  5. Surgical, Therapeutic, Rehabilitative, Life supporting
  6. Biocompatibility of implantable devices, Implantable biomedical devices - passive, Implantable biomedical devices - active
  7. Spectrophotometry, Mass spectroscopy, Automated chemical analysers, Electrophoresis, Hematology
  8. Midterm exam
  9. X-ray principles, Digital radiography, Computed tomography (CT), Interventional radiology - angiography
  10. Ultrasound diagnostics, Medical infrared imaging, Endoscopy, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  11. Interaction of light with cells and tissues, Optical spectroscopy and tissue imaging, Laser systems in the BME
  12. Gamma cameras, SPECT, PET, Radionuclide therapy, Radiation dosimetry
  13. International and national standards for safety and quality, EC medical device directives, Regulations in the USA, Testing and post-market controls
  14. Visit to a clinical institution
  15. Final exam

Study Programmes

University graduate
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Free Elective Courses (2. semester)
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Ante Šantić (1995.), Biomedicinska elektronika, Školska knjiga, Zagreb
Almir Badnjević, Mario Cifrek, Ratko Magjarević, Zijad Džemić (2017.), Inspection of Medical Devices, Springer
Richard C. Fries (2016.), Reliable Design of Medical Devices, CRC Press
(.), J. G. Webster (1995.), Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design, John Wiley&Sons, N.Y.,
(.), J.J.Carr, J.M.Brown (1998.), Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, Prentice Hall,
(.), The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition: Four Volume Set Donald R. Peterson,
(.), Noninvasive Instrumentation and Measurement in Medical Diagnosis Robert B. Northrop,

For students


ID 222495
  Summer semester
L3 English Level
L2 e-Learning
30 Lectures
22 Laboratory exercises

Grading System

90 Excellent
75 Very Good
60 Good
50 Acceptable