Antennas and Propagation

Course Description

Basic concepts of antennas and propagation of EM waves. Wire, aperture and reflector antennas and antenna arrays.

General Competencies

Deep understanding of antennas and propagation of EM waves in free space, near ground and in presence of obstacles. Allowing students to develop an intuition and physical feeling for different radiating structures and propagation phenomena. Ability to develop design capabilities of basic types of antennas and antenna systems.

Learning Outcomes

  1. summarize analysis of electromagnetic problems in radio frequency band
  2. describe basic types of antennas, their method of functioning and application
  3. summarize the concept of near and far field of antennas and antenna arrays
  4. design basic types of antenna arrays
  5. apply the concept of radiation pattern in antenna application and design
  6. describe and apply microstrip antennas

Forms of Teaching


Lectrures are given with the use of powerpoint presentations published on the web pages.


Continuous examination: - 4 short (10 min.) exams during lectures x 2 points = 8 points - mid-exam 3 problems x 10 points = 30 points -final written exam 3 problems x 10 points = 30 points - oral exam 32 points (16 points minimum for pass) During examination periods: - 4 short (10 min.) exams during lectures x 2 points = 8 points - written exam 3 problems x 20 points = 60 points - oral exam 32 points (16 points minimum for pass)


Solving example problems is performed during lectures.

Laboratory Work

Laboratory excercises take place within subject "Laboratory".


Adequately, some principles are illustrated by experiments during lectures.

Grading Method

Continuous Assessment Exam
Type Threshold Percent of Grade Threshold Percent of Grade
Quizzes 0 % 8 % 0 % 8 %
Mid Term Exam: Written 0 % 30 % 0 %
Final Exam: Written 0 % 30 %
Final Exam: Oral 32 %
Exam: Written 0 % 60 %
Exam: Oral 32 %

Participation in lectures includes short exams that can yield up to 8% of points within subject.

Week by Week Schedule

  1. Propagation of EM waves in free space and wave incidence on the boundary between two homogenous media
  2. Wave propagation near earth surface.Atmosphere attenuation and influence of the ionosphere.
  3. Scattering, diffraction, refraction and bending of EM waves around obstacles.
  4. Radiation of EM energy, Hertz dipole. Magnetic dipole, duality theorem.
  5. Antenna parameters: polarization, radiation pattern, radiating impedance, directivity and gain, effective and scattering aperture.
  6. Electric dipole: short and half-wavelength dipole, folded dipole, monopole.
  7. Antennas in communication systems: Friis transmission equation. Aperture antennas, Huygens principle and the equivalence theorem.
  8. Antenna arrays: linear and planar.
  9. Slot and microstrip antenna.
  10. Horn antennas, reflector antennas, lens antennas. Broadband antennas: biconical, helical, spiral, log-periodic.
  11. Guided waves and transmission lines: reflection on the transmission line, impedance matching.
  12. Filters and duplexers.
  13. Electronically controlled attenuators, phase shifters and hybrids.
  14. Beam forming networks and circuits.
  15. Antenna measurement.

Study Programmes

University graduate
Wireless Technologies (profile)
Theoretical Course (2. semester)


Ervin Zentner (2002.), Antene i radiosustavi, Graphis Zagreb
Simon R. Saunders (2007.), Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems, 2 edition, John Wiley & Sons
Warren L. Stutzman, Gary A. Thiele (1997.), Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons


For students


ID 91829
  Summer semester
L1 English Level
L1 e-Learning
35 Lectures
10 Exercises
0 Laboratory exercises
0 Project laboratory

Grading System

90 Excellent
80 Very Good
65 Good
54 Acceptable