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POSTGRADUATE SPECIALIST STUDY IN TRANSFORMERS - COURSES

 

 

 

Course:
Transformers - theory and application
Lecturers:
Prof. Zlatko Maljković, Ph.D.; Ivan Sitar, M.Sc.; Miroslav Poljak, Ph.D.
Description:
Course completes previously acquired transformer knowledge with advanced theory applied to power, special and instrument transformers.
The following topics of advanced transformer theory will be treated: inrush current, overexcitation, transformer equivalent circuits, transformer short circuit withstand capability, zero-sequence impedance, autotransformers, converter transformers, furnace transformers and reactors; and special topics of instrument transformers.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Student will acquire knowledge to be able to understand and solve problems related to transformer theory and its behaviour during the service of power, special and instrument transformers.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Type of transformers. No-load current. Inrush current. Single and three-phase transformers.
2
Grades and characteristics of transformer steel. Type of transformer cores and characteristics. No-load losses.
2
Mathematical models and equivalent circuits. Rules of size, mass and main transformer characteristics proportions.
2
Influence of winding connections and core types on transformer behaviour in the service. Neutral point earthing and resulting effects. Parallel operation.
2
Load losses. Transformer leakage field and additional losses. Short-circuit reactance. Transformer in short-circuit. Transformer short-circuit withstand capabilities and failures.
 
3
Transformer heating. Relative aging rate and transformer insulation life. Cooling of transformers.
2
Transformer insulation systems according to voltage levels and temperature classes. Transformer oil (types and characteristics)
 
2
Zero-sequence impedance, definition and measurements, in open circuit with and without delta winding, short-circuit zero-flux impedances, zero-sequence impedance when ZN connection exists.
 
3
Autotransformer. Advantages and disadvantages of AT connections. Short-circuit impedance and short-circuit currents. Voltage regulation in autotransformers.
 
4
Converter transformers. Rating data, winding configuration, harmonics and their influence on design, losses and thermal tests, leakage fields and short-circuit requirements.
 
4
Furnace transformers, types and choosing design according to voltage regulation. Direct regulation and regulation with booster transformer. LV connections and impedance calculation.
 
3
Reactors. Type of reactors according to design and application. Current-limiting reactors, shunt reactors and neutral-earthing reactors. Reactors in industrial equipments (smoothing reactors, chopper and filter reactors.)
 
3
Design specific of current, voltage and combined transformers
3
Rated parameters of measuring transformers
1
Rated parameters of protective transformers
1
Non-conventional instrument transformers
1
Life assessment and service reliability of instrument transformers
2
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. K.Karsai, D.Kerenyi, L.Kiss: Large Power Transformers, Elsevier 1987
2. M.J. Heathcote: The J&P Transformer Book, Newnes, 1988.
3. Inženjerski priručnik IP3, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2003.
4. V.Bego: Mjerni transformatori, Školska knjiga, 1977.
Semester:
2
English
Yes

 

 
 

 


Course:
Transformers in electric power system
Lecturers:
Prof. Ivo Uglešić, Ph.D.; Prof. Ante Marušić, Ph.D.; Prof. Ivica Pavić, Ph.D.
Description:
The course gives a basic knowledge of the operation of a transformer in a power system. The influences of the regulating transformer on voltages’ magnitudes and phase angle control in the power system are worked out. Faults which happen inside and outside the transformer and the influence of the power system on short circuit current magnitudes are analyzed. The problems of switching–in and overexcitation are analyzed. Transformer insulating levels and overvoltages in transformers are elaborated. The selection of transformer overvoltage protection is explained. Transformer models for analyses of steady states and transients are presented. The selection of characteristics of the voltage and current metering transformers is worked out. The protections of a power transformer and its coordination with the other protections in the power system are defined. Special protection functions of a transformer in transmission and distribution system and power plants.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
The course enables the student to select characteristics of power and measuring transformers for plants and to estimate the state of the transformer in the operation.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, student’s seminar reports and exercises in laboratory.
Topics for the course:
Name
Hours
Transformer operation in a electric power system.
2

Regulating transformers; control of voltages' magnitudes and phase angles in a power system. Protection concept of combined autotransformer-phase shifting transformer.

2
Short circuit currents in a power system and their influence on the transformer. 
3
Effect of inrush current on differential relays. Transformer overexictation.
3
Transformer insulating levels related to operating voltages and temporary, switching and lightning overvoltages. Transformer overvoltage protection.
6
Transformer models for analyses of the steady states and transients.
6
Voltage transformers in transient conditions.
2
Current transformers in transient conditions.
2
Instrument transformer specification due to protection requirements
2
Transformer protection and its coordination with other protective devices in the system.
2
Protection of a transformer in transmission system.
4
Protection of a transformer in distribution system.
4
Special protection functions of a unit transformer in power plants.
2
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. Hadi Saadat: Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002.
2. C. Bayliss: Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003.
3. P. Rush: Network Protection and Automation Guide, Alstom T&D Energy Automation & Information, Levallois-Perret, 2002.
Semester:
 
English
Yes

 

 
 

 

Course:
Transformer on-line monitoring, diagnostics and maintenance
Lecturers:
Prof. Zdenko Godec, Ph.D.; Antun Mikulecky, M.Sc.; Prof. Nedjeljko Perić, Ph.D.
Description:
Students will become familiar with the quantities that are characteristic for transformer condition monitoring, measurement methods and automation, on-line monitoring systems, fault and condition diagnostics, transformer maintenance, sensors, transducers and other elements of condition on-line monitoring system, physical fundamentals, interpretation of diagnostics and monitoring results, fault risk assessment, and choice of the on-line monitoring system for a particular transformer, transformer life assessment, permissible overloads, and optimised transformer management.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Students will be able to understand diagnostic procedures, and without assistance define the quantities for on-line monitoring of a particular transformer taking into account its relevance, condition, loads and fault risks. They will also be able to interpret monitoring results, and make use of transformer monitoring system warnings, analyses and recommendations for optimum transformer management.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Name
Hours
Introduction, Definition of terms, Transformer life and factors of influence, Purpose and benefits of on-line monitoring and diagnostics
4
Quantities characteristics for transformer condition monitoring, Measurement methods (transducers)
4
Automation of measurements, On-line monitoring systems and sets, On-line monitoring algorithms, Model on-line monitoring
4
Wireless and intelligent monitoring
2
Estimation of transformer parameters and condition based on fuzzy neural approach, Approach to estimation of transformer parameters and conditions based on Kalman and particle filters
6
Transformer condition diagnostics (physical fundamentals of diagnostic methods, their possibilities and efficiency)
4
Interpretation of measurement results, monitoring and diagnostics, criteria and decision making
4
Fundamentals of fault analysis, Fault risk estimation
2
Transformer management (transformer maintenance, overload scheduling, life assessment, cooling system control).
10
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1.      Godec, Z., Godec, D.: Sustavi motrenja uljnih transformatora, ENERGIJA 53(2004)2, 119-126
2.      Transformer Maintenance Guide (third edition), S. D. Myers, Inc.. 180 South Ave. Tallmadge, OH, 2004.
3.      D. Simon: Optimal State Estimation, John Wiley&Sons, 2006.
4.      C.T. Lin, C.S.G. Lee: Neural Fuzzy systems - A Neuro-Fuzzy Synergism to Intelligent Systems, Prentice Hall, New York, 1996.
Semester:
1
English
Yes

 

 
 

 

Course:
Electric field and insulating systems
Lecturers:
Prof. Željko Štih, Ph.D.; Antun Mikulecky, Ph.D.
Description:
Students will be made familiar with the fundamentals of electric field and scalar potential theory; principles of transformer insulating system design; characteristics of modern insulating materials and criteria for their use; special requirements of various transformer types; methods for computation and reduction/control of the critical electric field strength; application of 2D and 3D software packages for transformer electric field modelling.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Students will be able to evaluate without assistance individual design/constructional solutions/versions, and to perform further development/innovations in the area of transformer insulating systems.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Name
Hours
Electric field and scalar potential
4
Fundamentals of power transformer insulation (definitions, voltage stress systematisation, types of windings, systematisation of insulation)
4
Principles of insulating system design
4
Characteristics of oil-paper insulation with regard to various kinds of voltage stress
4
Designs of the transformer insulating system
4
Specific voltage characteristics of particular transformers (regulating, generator, autotransformers, with tertiary/stabilising winding, non-linear resistors in transformers)
6
Electric field equations and boundary conditions
2
ElectNet software package
6
Computation of transformer overvoltages
6
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. Z.Haznadar, Ž.Štih: Elektromagnetizam 1 i 2, Školska knjiga, 1997.
2. M.J. Heathcote: The J&P Transformer Book, Newnes, 1988.
3. R.M. Del Vecchio, B. Poulin, P.T. Feghali, D.M. Shah, R. Ahuja: Transformer Design Principles, Taylor & Francis, 2002.
Semester:
2
English
Yes

 

 
 

 

Course:
Transformer testing
Lecturers:
Prof.dr.sc. Ivo Uglešić Ph.D., Ivica Šulc, M.Sc.; Rajko Gardijan, B.Sc.; Miroslav Poljak, Ph.D.
Description:
The students will be made familiar with the fundamentals of transformer testing - its purpose and test methods, acceptance criteria for testing and test results, guaranteed values and tolerances, types of tests (factory, field, routine, type, special diagnostic), special features of individual tests depending on the transformer type, and with standards applicable to transformer testing.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Students will be able to assess without assistance transformer test and measurement results. They will become familiar with test methods, and organisation and execution of simple tests.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Name
Hours
Transformer testing – general, purpose, division
2
Standards for transformer testing
4
Dielectric tests – general
2
Impulse tests (full, switching, chopped impulse wave) – method, requirements on test and measurement equipment, assessment of test results, variations from the standards
5
Power-frequency tests (induced, separate source) including partial discharge, requirements on test and measurement equipment, assessment of test results, variations from the standards
3
Short-circuit and no-load tests – method, test and measurement equipment, measurement uncertainty
3
Temperature rise test, requirements on test and measurement equipment
2
Survey of other tests – purpose, methods, test and measurement equipment
3
Comparison of tests according to different international standards
2
Tests before transformer commissioning
4
Diagnostic tests
2
Special characteristics of instrument transformer tests (current, inductive and capacitive voltage, combined, electronic)
8
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. A. Carlson, J. Fuhr, G. Schemel, F. Wegscheider: Testing of Power Transformers, ABB, 2003.
2. Z. Godec – Iskazivanje mjernog rezultata, Graphis Zagreb, 1995
3. CIGRE WG12.16 Instrument transformer, Chapter 3:Tests
Semester:
2
English
Yes

 

 
 

 

Course:
Magnetic field and losses in transformers
Lecturers:
Prof. Željko Štih, Ph.D.; Prof. Zvonimir Valković, Ph.D.
Description:
The course aims to provide student with the knowledge of basic theory of electromagnetic field and potentials; properties and usage criteria of modern electrical steels; properties of different core types; distribution of stray losses due to the leakage flux on transformer elements; methods for calculation and reduction/control of stray losses; application of 2D and 3D systems for magnetic field and eddy-currents modeling in transformer.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Student will be educated for evaluation of different transformer design solutions and for further development/innovation in the field of magnetic phenomena and losses in transformers.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, exercises, student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Name
Hours
Electromagnetic field and scalar magnetic potential
3
Quasistatic field, skin effect and eddy currents
4
Grades and properties of transformer core steels
2
Design forms of single-phase and three-phase cores; magnetic properties of transformer cores (no-load loss and current).
4
Magnetic leakage field
1
Eddy current losses in the winding (due to axial and radial field); circulating currents in parallels
4
Stray losses in structural parts ( tank/cover, yoke clamping plate, tie plates, core laminations)
8
Control and reduction of stray losses (electromagnetic shield, magnetic shunt, nonmagnetic materials, transposed conductors)
6
Equations of electromagnetic field and boundary conditions
2
Programming system MagNet
6
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. Z.Haznadar, Ž.Štih: Elektromagnetizam 1 & 2, Školska knjiga, 1997.
2. M.J. Heathcote: The J&P Transformer Book, Newnes, 1988.
3. R.M. Del Vecchio, B. Poulin, P.T. Feghali, D.M. Shah, R. Ahuja: Transformer Design Principles, Taylor & Francis, 2002.
Semester:
2
English
Yes

 

 
                       

 

Course:
Materials and processes in transformer production
Lecturers:
Prof. Tomislav Filetin, Ph.D.; Ivan Sitar, M.Sc
Description:
Course getting to know with the properties and selection of materials for transformers components, production processes for making cores, windings, insulation parts, drying, assembling
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Student should be qualified for the evaluation of materials and design solutions in the development of construction and in the production of transformers as well as for development and innovations in the application of new materials and production processes.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Item
Hours
Materials properties
4
Transformer core materials
3
Transformer winding conductors and connections
3
Solid insulation materials
3
Transformer fluids for insulation and cooling
3
Materials for transformer tanks, structural connecting and sealing elements
3
Core production
2
Winding production
3
Production of insulating parts
2
Transformer oil treatment
2
Drying process
4
Tank production and corrosion protection
2
Transformer assembling
3
Transport and assembling on site
3
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. T. Luetić: Tehnologija elektrotehničkog materijala, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1999.
2. M.J. Heathcote: The J&P Transformer Book, Oxford , 1998.
3. M.Horning, J.Kelly, S.Myers, R. Stebbins: Transformer Maintenance Guide, USA
4. G.R. Jones: Electrical Engineer’s Reference Book, Oxford 1993.
Semester:
2nd
English
Yes

 

 
 

 

Course:
Electrical and mechanical design of power transformers – selected topics
Lecturers:
Boris Potočki, B.Sc.(EE); Damir Salopek, M.Sc.(ME)
Description:
Course introduce student with fundamentals of electrical and mechanical design of power transformers, optimising of solutions, control calculations, principles of 3D modelling, main assemblies and their functions (including protection and control equipment) and making design documentation.
 
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Student will be qualified for understanding of some design solutions, participation in design process and theirs further development. Understanding of design solutions enables efficiently transformer management.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
Name
Hours
Electrical design process
4
Core
1
Windings and conductors
3
Short-circuit calculation – currents, forces, stresses
4
Load losses calculation
2
Heating and cooling calculation
2
Overvoltage calculation
2
Transformer noise – source, calculation, measures for reduction
2
Fundamentals of computer aided design
5
Power transformer as variant design
2
Main assemblies of power transformer and their functions
6
Retrieving and reusing previous solutions
2
Mechanical design documentation lifecycle
3
An example of CAD system
2
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. A. Dolenc: Transformatori I i II, Sveučilište u Zagrebu, 1987.
2. R.M. Del Vecchio, B. Poulin, P.T. Feghali, D.M. Shah, R. Ahuja: Transformer Design Principles, Taylor & Francis, 2002.
3. J.J. Shah, M. Mäntylä: Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM: Concepts, Techniques and Applications, John Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, 1995.
4. N. Bojčetić: Oblikovanje pomoću računala, Modeliranje krutim tijelima i modeliranje uporabom značajki, predavanja, FSB Zagreb, 2006. http://www.cadlab.fsb.hr/
Semester:
2
English
Yes

 

 
 

 

Course:
Thermal and mechanical phenomena in transformer
Lecturers:
Prof. Davor Zvizdić, Ph.D.; Prof. Damir Semenski, Ph.D.; Prof. Zvonimir Valković, Ph.D.
Description:
To train students for analyzing and solving the engineering problems in the field of mechanics and thermodynamics of systems. Definition of the tensor of stresses and strains. Vibration systems modeling and noise appearance. Heat transfer and calculations of transformer temperature rise.
ECTS
6
Hours of lecturing:
40
Competencies:
Students will be able to analyze phenomena due to mechanical and thermal transformers load.
Forms of teaching
Lectures, exercises and student’s seminar reports
Topics for the course:
 
Hours
Analysis of stresses and deformations, connections between stresses and deformations
4
Materials and their mechanical properties, anisotropic materials
2
Dynamics of solid bodies, laws of dynamics
2
Modelling of vibration systems, harmonically excited vibration of a undamped and damped systems
4
Transformer noise
4
Analysis of transformer temperature rise.
4
Modelling of conductive heat transfer in transformer windings.
4
Modelling of convective heat transfer from windings and transformer enclosure in oil-filled and in dry-type transformers.
4
Modelling of radiative heat transfer in dry-type and in explosion-proof (mining) transformers.
4
Calculation of combined heat transfer and overall temperature rise for different types of transformers.
8
Forms of assessment:
Seminar report, oral examination
Literature:
1. S. Jecić, D. Semenski, “Equations of theory of elasticity”, AJA, Zagreb, 2001.
2. D. Pustaić, H. Wolf, Z. Tonković, “Mechanics III - Introduction in the analytical mechanics with basic of the theory of vibration”, Golden marketing - Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2006.
3. J.Pholman, "Heat Transfer", McGraw-Hill, London, 2001.
4. E.R.G.Eckert, R.M.Drake: "Analysis of heat and mass transfer", McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, Tokyo, 2003.
Semester:
2
English
Yes

 

 

 


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